Waste products that contain nitrogen. These products, such as ammonia and urea, are produced during protein metabolism.
enzyme prepares milk for further digestion, found in only in infants and children (an enzyme secreted by the kidneys in response to reduce blood flow that stimulates the release of aldosterone)
Hormone secreted by the kidney to increase red blood cells (a hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells)
Active Form of Vitamin D
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.)
Increase in nitrogenous wastes in the blood-(a cluster of symptoms related to the retention of nitrogenous substances in the blood such as fatigue, decreased mental acuity, muscle twitches, cramps, anorexia, unpleasant nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, itchy skin, gastritis, and GI bleeding)
Pre-end Stage Renal Disease
the period of renal failure when renal function is impaired but not to the degree where dialysis or transplant is required. Also known as renal insufficiency. (characterized by an increase in serum creatinine levels secondary to a decline in renal function)
End Stage Renal Disease
ESRD - progressve, irreversible, deterioration of renal function resulting in retention of uremic waste products (a severe stage of chronic renal failure that requires life-sustaining treatment with either dialysis or a kidney transplant. BUN may be as high as 150 to 250 mg/dL)
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
the rate at which the kidneys form filtrate as determined by the amount of creatinine excreted per 24 hours. Normal GRF is about 120 to 130 ml/min.
solution that contains water and electrolytes which passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood
magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals formed by the action of bacterial enzymes.