The Baroque Period

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50 terms · Music Appreciation

A large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative biblical text, is called

oratorio

A ________ is a singer with a low range who usually takes comic roles.

basso buffo

A popular keyboard instrument in which sound was produced by means of brass blades striking the strings was the

clavichord

The _______ is a Lutheran congregational hymn tune.

chorale

In Italy, music schools were often connected with

orphanages

Baroque trio sonatas usually involve ________ performers.

four

The main theme of a fugue is called the

subject

An _________ is a play, set to music, sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and action.

opera

The _____________ in an oratorio is especially important and serves either to comment on or to participate in the drama.

chorus

A baroque musical composition usually expresses ___________ within the same movement.

one basic mood

Bach's personal musical style was drawn from

all of the above

Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 is unusual in that

it gives a solo role to the harpsichord

The large group of players in a concerto grosso is known as the

tutti

A typical baroque operatic form was the da capo aria in ABA form in which the singer

was expected to embellish the returning melody with ornamental tones

An ___________ is an orchestral composition performed before the curtain rises on a dramatic work.

overture

Some indication of the acclaim and respect given Henry Purcell by his fellow Englishmen can be seen from the fact that he is buried in

Westminster Abbey

Bach was recognized as the most eminent ___________ of his day.

organist

In the baroque period, the ordinary citizen's opportunities for hearing music usually came from the

church

Congregational singing of chorales was an important way for people to

participate directly in the service

The focus of a Handel oratorio is usually the

chorus

A common variation form in the baroque is based on the use of a ground bass, or

basso ostinato

Sets of dance-inspired instrumental movements are called

suites

An operatic song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment is called

aria

A polyphonic composition based on one main theme, a cornerstone of baroque music, is the

fugue

During the middle baroque, the church modes gave way to

major and minor scales

The main keyboard instruments of the baroque period were the organ and the

harpsichord

Vivaldi spent most of his life working at an institution for orphaned and illegitimate girls in

Venice

A sung piece, or choral work with or without vocal soloists, usually with orchestral accompaniment, is the

cantata

A bass part together with numbers (figures) that specify the chords to be played above it, characteristic of the baroque, is called

basso continuo

Very often an independent fugue is introduced by a short piece called a(n)

prelude

In the baroque era, dynamics consisted mainly of sudden alterations between loud and soft called

terraced dynamics

The early and late baroque periods differed in the composers in early baroque

favored homophonic texture

The _________ is the person who beats time, indicates expression, cues in musicians, and controls the balance among instruments and voices.

conductor

Instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time in the ___________ period.

late baroque

The Concerto Grosso is based on the baroque's basic principle of the contrast between

loud and soft

A section that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition is called a

movement

The text, or book, of a musical dramatic work is called the

libretto

One of the most revolutionary periods in music history was the

early baroque

Castrati

all of the above

Affections in baroque usage refers to

emotional states or moods of music

__________ refers to a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech.

recitative

A collection of compositions that displays all the resources of fugue writing is Johann Sebastian Bach's

Art of the Fugue

Handel's oratorios are usually based on

the Old Testament

Although Handel wrote a great deal of instrumental music, the core of his huge output consists of English oratorios and Italian

operas

The first and last movements of the concerto grosso are often in ________ form.

ritornello

The position of the composer during the baroque period was that of

a high-class servant with few personal rights

Baroque melodies often are

elaborate and ornamental

Presenting the subject of a fugue going from right to left, or beginning with the last and proceeding backward to the first note, is called

retrograde

The sonata in the baroque period was a composition in several movements for

one to eight instruments

One of the most important composers of the early baroque, writing his last opera at the age of 75, was

Claudio Monteverdi

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