|positive reinforcement|| |
pleasant consequences make responses more likely; add something; encourages or increases bahavior; increase likelihood of bahavior being maintained
|negative reinforcement|| |
avoidance of something unpleasant; aversive stimulus is removed; encourages or increases future behavior; increas likelihood of behavior being maintained
|extrinsic motivation|| |
not inherently related to activity be reinforced
|intrinsic motivation|| |
|positive punishment|| |
response is followed by the presentation of an aversive consequence; something is added or presented in the situation; decrease bahavior now and in the future; the consequence of the initial bejavior is unpleasant
|negative punishment||stimulus is subtracted or removed from the situation; loss or withdrawal of reinforcing stimulus following an undesired behavior; loss of privelege, possession or desirable object or activity; decreases behavior now and in the future|
|instinctive drift|| |
tendency of animals or humans to forgo rewards to pursue their typical patterns of behavior
|premack principal|| |
reinforcement depends on the situation; rewards vary with individual
|primary reinforcer|| |
satisfy biological needs ex. food water shelter, air, etc
|secondary reinforcer|| |
learned or conditioned ex.grades, stickers, money, candy etc
|wolfgang kohler|| |
studied chimpanzees; hung bananas at top of cage with crate at the bottom, chimps build crates up to reach bananas.--insight learning
|behavior modification|| |
conditioning technique to teach new responses and to reduce mal=adapting behaviors
|continuous reinforcement|| |
reinforced each time it occurs; is best when response is first acquired.
|intermittent reinforcement|| |
(partial) schedule of reinforcement; reinforce some, not all responses
|fixed ratio reinforcement|| |
occurs after a fixed number of responses-high rate of responding
|variable ratio reinforcement|| |
occurs after an average number of responses-extremely highnrate of responding resistent to extinction
|fixed interval reinforcement|| |
occurs after a fixed amount of time
|variable interval reinforcement|| |
occurs after a variable/differing amount of time-more resistent to extinction than fixed schedules
operant conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced
subjects are taught to perform a number of responses successfully in order to get a reward
|observational learning|| |
bobo; person learns new responses by observing the behavior of another model, rather than through direct experience, called vicarious learning
|backward conditioning||US (meat) first the CS (bell); ineffective|
|delayed conditioning|| |
CS (bell) introduced first and while happening add the US (meat); most effective
term coined by Bandura on how we learn by imitating others. His research - children will spontaneously imitate the behavior of a model without any obvious reinforcement.
|classical conditioning|| |
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar response
|ivan pavlov|| |
(1849-1936) Russia. Studied salivation in dogs using classical conditioning.
|unconditioned stimulus|| |
The classical conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning.
|conditioned stimulus|| |
The classical-conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
|unconditioned response|| |
The classical-conditioning term for a reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning
|conditioned response|| |
The classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response. In classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
|spontaneous recovery|| |
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning. In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus occurs (or is suppressed) in the presence of other, similar stimuli.
The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli. In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus fails to evoke the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, it occurs when an organism learns to make a response in the presence of other, similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension.
|john watson|| |
(1920) first psychologist to recognize the human implications of Pavlovian theory. Classical conditioning. Little Albert.
An exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object.
|little albert|| |
Orphan infant used by Watson for experiment. CS= mouse;US= clanging/loud noise;CR= cry and try to get away
|counter conditioning|| |
In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response.
|edward thorndike|| |
1898. Used cats; Used puzzle box and instrumental conditioning.
|albert bandura|| |
Used Bobo doll; Showed observational learning.
|vicarious conditioning|| |
Person's learn new responses by observing the behavior of another model rather than through direct experience.
toy used in experiment by Bandura. Children treated Bobo the way they saw adults treating Bobo
|garcia effect|| |
Existence of greater biological readiness to associate sickness with taste than with sights or sounds
|latent learning|| |
A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement.
(1930) Used mice in maze to demonstrate latent learning
|operant learning|| |
The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.
focused on the external causes of action and actions consequences. Believed that people did not really have free will. All behavior is shaped by the environment and your genes; Skinner Box
|aversive stimuli|| |
Typically involve physical or psychological discomfort that an organism seeks to escape or avoid.
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- "premack principal" image
- "primary reinforcer" image
- "secondary reinforcer" image
- "wolfgang kohler" image
- "behavior modification" image
- "continuous reinforcement" image
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- "fixed ratio reinforcement" image
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- "fixed interval reinforcement" image
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- "shaping" image
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- "delayed conditioning" image
- "modeling" image
- "classical conditioning" image
- "ivan pavlov" image
- "unconditioned stimulus" image
- "conditioned stimulus" image
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- "conditioned response" image
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- "counter conditioning" image
- "edward thorndike" image
- "albert bandura" image
- "vicarious conditioning" image
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