pleasant consequences make responses more likely; add something; encourages or increases bahavior; increase likelihood of bahavior being maintained
avoidance of something unpleasant; aversive stimulus is removed; encourages or increases future behavior; increas likelihood of behavior being maintained
not inherently related to activity be reinforced
response is followed by the presentation of an aversive consequence; something is added or presented in the situation; decrease bahavior now and in the future; the consequence of the initial bejavior is unpleasant
stimulus is subtracted or removed from the situation; loss or withdrawal of reinforcing stimulus following an undesired behavior; loss of privelege, possession or desirable object or activity; decreases behavior now and in the future
tendency of animals or humans to forgo rewards to pursue their typical patterns of behavior
reinforcement depends on the situation; rewards vary with individual
satisfy biological needs ex. food water shelter, air, etc
learned or conditioned ex.grades, stickers, money, candy etc
studied chimpanzees; hung bananas at top of cage with crate at the bottom, chimps build crates up to reach bananas.--insight learning
conditioning technique to teach new responses and to reduce mal=adapting behaviors
reinforced each time it occurs; is best when response is first acquired.
(partial) schedule of reinforcement; reinforce some, not all responses
fixed ratio reinforcement
occurs after a fixed number of responses-high rate of responding
variable ratio reinforcement
occurs after an average number of responses-extremely highnrate of responding resistent to extinction
fixed interval reinforcement
occurs after a fixed amount of time
variable interval reinforcement
occurs after a variable/differing amount of time-more resistent to extinction than fixed schedules
operant conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced
subjects are taught to perform a number of responses successfully in order to get a reward
bobo; person learns new responses by observing the behavior of another model, rather than through direct experience, called vicarious learning
US (meat) first the CS (bell); ineffective
CS (bell) introduced first and while happening add the US (meat); most effective
term coined by Bandura on how we learn by imitating others. His research - children will spontaneously imitate the behavior of a model without any obvious reinforcement.
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar response
(1849-1936) Russia. Studied salivation in dogs using classical conditioning.
The classical conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning.
The classical-conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
The classical-conditioning term for a reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning
The classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response. In classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning. In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus occurs (or is suppressed) in the presence of other, similar stimuli.
The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli. In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus fails to evoke the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, it occurs when an organism learns to make a response in the presence of other, similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension.
(1920) first psychologist to recognize the human implications of Pavlovian theory. Classical conditioning. Little Albert.
An exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object.
Orphan infant used by Watson for experiment. CS= mouse;US= clanging/loud noise;CR= cry and try to get away
In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response.
1898. Used cats; Used puzzle box and instrumental conditioning.
Used Bobo doll; Showed observational learning.
Person's learn new responses by observing the behavior of another model rather than through direct experience.
toy used in experiment by Bandura. Children treated Bobo the way they saw adults treating Bobo
Existence of greater biological readiness to associate sickness with taste than with sights or sounds
A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement.
(1930) Used mice in maze to demonstrate latent learning
The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.
focused on the external causes of action and actions consequences. Believed that people did not really have free will. All behavior is shaped by the environment and your genes; Skinner Box
Typically involve physical or psychological discomfort that an organism seeks to escape or avoid.