5 Written questions
5 Multiple choice questions
- Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and other means of popular communication.
- Television and radio, as compared with print media.
- The use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams, and schemes, which at times puts reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders.
- Events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless look spontaneous. In keeping with politics as theater, they can be staged by individuals, groups, and government officials, especially presidents.
- Newspapers published by massive media conglomerates that account for over four-fifths of the nation's daily newspaper circulation. Often these control broadcast media as well.
5 True/False questions
sound bites → Short video clips of approximately 15 seconds; typically all that is shown from a politician's speech or activities on the nightly television news.
narrowcasting → Media programming on cable TV or the Internet that is focused on one topic and aimed at a particular audience. Examples include MTV, ESPN, and C-SPAN.
trial balloons → A shot of a person's face talking directly to the camera. Because this is visually unappealing, the major commercial networks rarely show a politician talking one-on-one for very long.
policy entrepreneurs → People who invest their political "capital" in an issue. According to John Kingdon, these "could be in or out of government, in elected or appointed positions, in interest groups or research organizations."
press conferences → Events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless look spontaneous. In keeping with politics as theater, they can be staged by individuals, groups, and government officials, especially presidents.