Sociology-Chapter3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age

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22 terms

socialization

the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture

personality

a person's fairly consistant patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling

id

Freud's term for the human being's basic drives

ego

Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society

superego

Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual

sensorimotor stage

Plaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses

preoperational stage

Plaget's term for the level of human deveopment at which an individuals first use language and other symbols

concrete operational stage

Plaget's term for the level of human deveopment at which an individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings

formal operational stage

Plaget's term for the level of human deveopment at which an individuals think abstractly and critically

self

George Herbert Mead's term for the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image

looking-glass self

Charles Horton Cooley's term for self-image based on how we think others see us

significant others

people, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization

generalized other

Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves

peer group

a social group whose members have interests, social positions, and age in common

anticipatory socialization

learning that helps a person acheive a desired position

mass media

the means for delivering impersonal communication to a vast audience

gerontology

the study of ageing and the elderly

gerontocracy

a form of social organization in which the elderly have the most wealth, power, and prestige

ageism

prejudice and discrimination against older people

cohort

a category of people with something in common, usually their age

total institution

a setting im which people are isolated form the rest of society and controlled by an administative staff

resocialization

radically changing an inmate's personality by carefullt controlling the environment

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