purpose of ligature ties?
hold archwire in place and are tied to the brackets
the purpose of the bite place in a Hawley retainer is to:
open the vertical bite relationship, thus correcting an OVERBITE
Use: brass wire or flexible mm ruler
Lay the wire over the contact points of bicuspids and incisal edges of anterior teeth.
Measurement is take from the mesial of the 1st molar to the mesial of the 1st molar of the opposite side.
Use: Use millimeter ruler to measure distance on bow divider and record
Distance from cusp to cusp
materials needed for brass wire SEPARATORS:
howe pliers, locking hemostats, brass wire, wire cutters ( pin and ligature pliers) wire bending pliers, condenser or similar instrument.
3 most common types of separators:
kelsing springs (TP Springs)
Elastic separators can cause problems if?
they slip subgingivally, cause too much separation, interfere with normal occlusion, remain on the teeth after bands have been placed.
materials needed for wire LIGATION:
wire cutters ( pin & ligature cutters)
Materials needed for elastic ortho separators:
elastic ortho separators
scaler or explorer (for removal)
steps to placing ortho bonded brackets:
1)brackets are arranged in order
2)teeth are coronal polished to remove stains, pellicle, plaque
3)teeth are isolated using cotton rolls or cheeck retractors
4)posphoric acid solution (etch) is applied to the tooth for 20- 30 secs the rinsed
5)clear bonding agent is painted on teeth
6)composite material applied to the bracket and bonded to the tooth
what does the bonding agent do when bonding brackets?
locks onto the tooth and then the composite sticks to boding agent
what should be done with the twists when placing wire ligatures? and why?
cut about 3mm with pin and ligature cutters and tuck under the bracket corner, gingivally or interproximally
to avoid irritation of lips and cheeks
steps for removal of wire ligature ties:
using a wire cutter, snip the ligature wire opposite the pigtail twist
remove the ligature wire, being careful not to injure tissue or loosen the bracket
if archwire wont properly seat the RDA should?
-check end of archwire for roughness
-check for debris in buccal tubes and brackets
-observe torque (twist) of the archwire it may be bending in the buccal tube
-consult with dentist if problem persists
steps for placing ELASTIC ligatures:
1) seat the archwire into the buccal tubes and center at median
2) push archwire into brackets gently
3) place elastic ligatures onto the ligature plier holding firmly
4) guide the elastic ligature over the bracket wings one corner at a time
5) proceed to the next bracket until all brackets on arch have been ligated
materials needed for placement of elastic ligatures:
elastic ligatures, elastic ligature pliers (locking hemostats), prepped archwire
when removing wire ligatures you should be careful not to?
injure tissue , loosen brackets
types of separators?
TP Springs (kelsing spring, coil springs), elastic separators, brass wire separators
what is the purpose of a hawes retainer?
widen the palate when the teeth are in crossbite condition
one or more of the upper teeth or cusps are inside the lower teeth or cusps during occlusion
where is the separator placed?
around the tooth
most common used separators?
elastic separators, brass wire separators, TP Springs ( Kelsing springs, Coil springs)
determine the amount of space available for tooth movement in relationship to the nuber and size of teeth present
intra oral measurements
where is the buccal tube and headgear tube located?
the most posterior tooth banded or bonded
the purpose of a band?
to secure a bracket, buccal tube and or headgear tube to a tooth
the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary 1st molar is mesial to the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar
Branch of dentistry which deals with the correction, interception, and prevention of maloccusions of the teeth and dental arches
helix (coil spring)
intra oral measurements consist of?
tooth size, arch width and circumference, overbite and overjet
use: bow divider
measure the distance from the tip of the cusp of the left cuspid to the tip of the cusp of the right cuspid
half of arch circumference
use: brass wire or flexible mm ruler
lay wire over contact point of bicuspids and incisal edges of anterior teeth
measurement is is taken from mesial of 1st molar on the opposite side
straighten the brass wire & measure the length on a ruler. * you can also use flexible ruler
materials needed for intra oral or model measurements:
brass wire or flexible mm ruler
materials needed for placement of elstic ligatures?
elastic ligature pliers (locking hemostats)
what is the purpose of separators?
cause the teeth to move apart (separate) enough so that a band can be placed onto the tooth
small rubber bands placed intraorally which are used to exert pressure to assist in the adjustments of the jaws and the teeth
upper arch is?
curvature on upper and lower arch is called?
curve of spee
xray of the skull from one side
intra oral measurements consist of?
tooth size, arch width and circumference, overbite and overjet
how can a bracket be placed?
directly bonded onto the tooth or welded onto a band which is then cemented onto the tooth.
also used to correct crossbite and other malocclusion problems:
curve of spee is usually charted on a?
cephlometric head film
archwires are measured in?
1/1000 ths of an inch
held in place "tied"
what are two ways to secure an archwire?
wire ligature ties or elastic ligature ties
lower arch is?
self ligating brackets
widely being used today. Brackets have a door type device that replaces the need for ties or elastics.
ortho diagnostic aids are?
study models, photographs, intra oral measurements, cephlometric xray, panorex or full mouth,
orthodontic bands and brackets are checked at each apt to see if?
they are loose or if they have any rough edges
2 types of retainers?
hawes (jackscrew, palatal expander) hawley retainers
removable device which is used to retain (hold) teeth in place after active orthodontic tx is completed.
Also used to create minor teeth movement instead of or in addition to banding
where should steel spring separators and brass wire separators be disposed?
how many times can you use steel spring or brass wire separators?
they are a one time use
what way is the archwire bent after it is inserted into the buccal tube?
archwires only come in one shape: truth or false?
wires come in various shapes for different purposes
where is the bracket placed?
middle 1/3 of the crown of the tooth
device which holds the archwire in place around the arch?
thin sheet of metal which is cemented around a tooth
method that uses the relationship of the maxillary and mandibular FIRST molars to define 3 broad classifications of malocclusion
edward angle method
how and why is an archwire activated?
the archwire is "bent" by the orthodontist to cause movement of the teeth
most widely accepted method for classifying malocclusion was developed by?
molars are in normal relationship. the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper 1st molar occludes with the buccal groove of the lower 1st molar. *anterior teeth may be crowded or rotated
most common method for taking ortho measurements is on?
ortho measurements can be taken?
intraorally and on study models
another name for TP separators?
kelsing springs, coil springs
if brackets are bonded directly to teeth you wil not need separators since no extra space will be needed for a band: true or false?
why should twists on wire ligatures be cut off and tucked under the bracket?
to avoid irritation of lips and cheeks
when placing ligatures why should you not twist them too tight?
because they might break
what is a reason why a dentist might still use a band?
severely turned or rotated teeth or for molars
what is the most common way to place brackets no a days?
directly bonded to the tooth
how many days prior to bonding are elastic, brass wire and TP separators placed?
2 to 3 days
upper and lower anteriors do not occlude leaving an open space between the maxillary and mandibular anteriors when the jaws are closed.
*can be caused by thumb sucking or mouth breathing.
why are ortho separators placed?
to open contacts to provide space for bands
the hawes retainer is made up of how many pieces?
hawes retainer can be fixed and removable: true or false?
different names for hawes retainer?
jackscrew, palata expander
removal of bands is most easily accomplished with?
band removing pliers
it is necessary to remove bands after they have been?
-when loose band is located during tx
-when tx is completed
how are bands removed?
with band removing pliers
soft side of the pliers is placed on occlusal surface of the tooth other side should catch the cervical edge of the band
pliers are squeezed together and band is lifted free from the tooth.
how are bands chosen?
measuring the mesio distal width of the tooth and choose a band the same size, place on tooth or pts study model. if band is right size continue to the next tooth
elastic ortho separators can cause the teeth to?
-cause the accumulation of food dbris around the teeth
archwire is held in place by inserting it in the?
RDA may NOT bond brackets unless?
they hold a OAP license
prepare teeth bonding: RDA or DA?
what will the bonding agent do when placing brackets?
bonding agent will lock onto the tooth and then the composite will stick to the bonding agent
most common types of ligatures used today?
what happens when the arch is widening?
the crossbite is corrected
archwire protruding distal to the buccal tube should be?
cut with end cutting pliers and bent gingivaly
what are the two types of ligation used in orthodontics?
wire ligation and elastic ligation
ultrasonic scaler are limited to use around orthodontic appliances & may not be used for excess cement removal around crown & bridge or after removal of bonded appliances. true or false?
apply extra oral forces to the teeth so movement occurs more rapidly
headgears in orthodontics
after orthodontic bands have been removed to retain or maintain the position of the teeth until new bone is completely formed around the teeth and the occlusion is stabiized
when retainers are used and their purpose
what should you not do when twisting wire ligatures?
twist they too tight as they might break
phosphoric acid solution
what forms of bonding agent are available?
light cured, self timed
where is composite placed when placing bonded brackets?
on the back of each bracket
for how long do you cure etch on a tooth when placing bonded brackets?
20 -30 secs
materials for seating of adjusted headgears & retainers?
mouth mirror and hand mirror
what motion do you use when placing elastic separators?
what do separators do when they come in contact with saliva?
they expand and push teeth apart
the mesio cusp of the maxillary 1st molar distal to the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar a protrusive jaw the mesio cusp of the maxillary 1st molar distal to the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar a protrusive jaw
mesiocclusion class III
most common type of separators used today?
overbite procedure is measured vertical or horizontal?
while twisting wire ligatures you should?
hold wire smooth while twisting and make sure neither the pliers or the wire impinges on soft tissue
1) seat archwire into buccal tube and center at median line.
2) push archwire into brackets gently making sure wire is completely seated into the brackets before ligation
3) loop wire ligature over bracket and archwire fully engaging the wire around the bracket before ligating
4) cross wire and cath in points of ligating plier
5) wrap ligature on stabilizing knob of plier
6) twist ligature clockwise
7) remove plier cut twists to about 3mm and tuck under the bracket corner
placing brass wire ligatures
steps for removal of elastic ligature?
1) using scaler hook the scaler under the loop of the elastic and lift off from each corner of the bracket to free the archwire
2) continue around, removing each elastic ligature until the archwire is completely
when taking off elastic ligatures care should be taken to?
-stabilize scaler so as to prevent slippage and injury to soft tissues
-to see that all pieces
1) have pt bring teeth into centric occlusion. mark the lower incisors to show how far the maxillary teeth overlap or overbite the mandibular anteriors
2) have pt open mouth and measure the distance from the mark to the incisal edge of lower anteriors.
placement of brass wire and TP Spring separators
RDA but can be removed by DA or RDA
Why are teeth coronal polished when placing bonded brackets?
to remove stains, plaque, pellicle
what shouold the RDA do if the archwire wont seat properly?
-check end of wire for roughness
-check for debris in the buccal tube or brackets
-observe the torque (twist) of the archwire (it may be bending the buccal tube)
--consult with the dentist if the problem persists
what will the etchant do to the tooth when placing brackets?
will create microscopic spaces between the enamel rods
loose band or bracket can cause?
-brown or black discoloration which can permanetly mark the teeth
-unpleasant odors and tastes
-plaque and materia alba build- up
used to apply extra oral forces to the teeth to either move teeth distally or to keep them from moving mesially
lower anteriors close too far in severe cases the lower incisors bite into the palate
type of cement used to cement bands?
extend from the mandibular anteriors to the maxillary posteriors
Class III Elastics
area where the 3 pieces of bone that make up the palate are joined together?
why is the pt told to adjust the hawes retainer each day?
this will cause the gradual separation of the maxillary boney suture by widening the arch the crossbite is corrected
elastic ortho separators can cause problems if they?
-interfere with normal occlusion
-cause too uch separation
-remain on the teeth after the bands have been placed
with teeth in centric position use a mili ruler to measure horizontal space between upper and lower anteriors
overbite and overjet procedure measurement
use: boley gauge
measure the mesiodistal width of each tooth at the contact points
record tooth measurements & the total of all the tooth widths in the arch
what instrument do you use to remove bands?
band removing pliers
how do you select a band?
measuring mesio distal width if the tooth & choose band of the same size
extend from the maxillary anteriors to the mandibular posteriors
class II elastics
bonding procedures may not currently be performed by DA or RDA: true or false?
when removing elastic separators you move them.....?
occlusally away from the gingival tissue to prevent injury to the tissue
elastic separators may cause teeth to become?
-accumulation of food debris around the tooth
1) place an elastic separator on the tip of the separator forcpts and stretch the elastic through the contact point of the tooth with a seesaw motion.
2) place one loop beneath the contact point and the other above and into the embrasure
3) indicate on pts chart how many separators where placed
placement of elastic separators
ultrasonic scaler are limited to use around orthodontic appliances & may NOT be used for excess cement removal around crown & bridge or after removal of bonded appliances. true or false?
during brass wire separation period what can be done and what shouldnt be interfered?
wire should not interfere with occlusion, gingival tissue, chewing and speech. brass wire separators can be tightened periodically.
covered with or full of wart like growths
separate not running together or blending
what are the ways to prevent a mouth mirror from fogging?
place it under warm water
-rub it along the buccal mucosa
pwhat parts of the mouth does an oral cavity inspection procedure consist of?
-floor of mouth
-record vital sigsn and health history
located on top of contact point acts as a natural spillway for food
located under contact point
-v shaped between teeth
anug is caused by?
-poor oral hygiene
normal depth for sulcus is?
what is a periodontal pocket?
hardest structure in the human body
-formed by ameloblasts
does not degenerate itself
located below the enamel
-makes up th ebulk of the tooth
-can be replaced and regenerated with odontoblasts
covers root portion of the tooth
-formed by cells called cementoblasts
-caries the nerve of the tooth
-contains blood and lymph supply for the tooth
methods for inspection of the oral cavity?