Psychology 101 Chapter 1-3 Study Guide

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Dr. Kristy McDonald

In the definintion of psychology, the term "mental processes" means

Internal covert processes

A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of:

Explanation

Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best fit are interested in the goal of:

Description

Which early theorist developed his perspective on psychology by basing it on Darwin's "survival of the fittest" doctrine?

William James

"The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" is a statement associated with the perspective of

Gestalt theory

__ _ was (were) the focus of Watson's behaviorism.

Observable experiences

Who was denied a Ph.D. despite completing all the requirements for earning the degree?

Mary W. Calkins

Dr. Silverberg conducted a study in which she tests infants for memory ability. Before she can begin her study, she must obtain

Informed consent from the parents

Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization?

Humanistic

Jenna suffers from a nervous tic of washing her hands repeatedly and being unable to resist washing them again and again. Which perspective would explain Jenna's hand-washing behavior as a result of repressed conflicts?

Psychodynamic

Which perspective looks at perception, learning, and memory?

Cognitive psychology

Which perspective assumes that human behavior may have developed in certain directions because it served a useful function in preserving the species?

Behaviorism

Which of the following professionals in psychology has the broadest area of interests and functions?

Psychologist

A person who has suffered a major stroke and is now experiencing severe personality problems because of the damage would best be advised to see a

Psychiatrist

Which of the following specialties in psychology provides diagnosis and treatment for less serious mental problems such as adjustment disorders?

Counseling

In the scientific method, forming an educated guess is called

Hypothesis

The main advantage of laboratory observation is?

Control

Harlan wanted to write realistically about street gangs, so he pretended to be a teenager, what type of method was utilized?

Participant observation

The main advantage of a case study is...?

Large amount of detail

The entire group that a researcher is interested in is referred to as....?

A population

Professor Jones surveyed her six classes and found that students who slept less than five hours the night before the exam received lower exam scores than those students who slept seven hours or more. What kind of correlation is this relationship between hours of sleep and scores?

Positive correlation

Drinking orange juice is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. Based on this information, which of the following statements is TRUE?

It is a negative correlation

A researcher designs an experiment to test the effects of playing video games on memory. What would be the dependent variable?

Memory

In that same experiment, the experimental group would be...?

Kids playing video games

Double-blind studies control for

Experimental bias

In a ______ study, only the experimenter knows who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group.

Single-blind

In the structure of the neuron, the ______ sends information to other cells.

Axon

Which type of cell makes up 10 percent of the brain?

Neuron cell

Damaged nerve fibers in the body can repair themselves because they are coated with ______, which forms a protective tunnel around the nerve fibers.

Myelin

When a neuron is in the resting potential state, where are the sodium ions?

Outside of the cells

How does one neuron communicate with another neuron?

Action potential

Which neurotransmitter is associated with the control of the pain response?

Endorphins

Which of the following is the correct path of a reflex arc?

Afferent, interneuron, efferent neuron

Voluntary muscles are controlled by the _____ nervous system.

Somatic

Your heart races. You begin to breathe faster. Your pupils enlarge and your appetite is gone. Your ______ division has just been activated.

Sympathetic

The ______ division controls ordinary, day-to-day bodily functions.

Parasympathetic

Which of the following techniques for imaging the brain would not be advisable for a person with a metal plate in his or her head?

MRI

Which technique of studying the brain actually damages neurons?

Deep lesioning

Maria suffered a stroke that damaged a part of her brain. She fell into a sleeplike coma and could not be awakened. If we know that the area of damage is somewhere in the brain stem, which structure is most likely damaged?

Reticular formation

Alex, who is 2 months old, is having his picture taken. The photographer tries to sit him up, but Alex keeps sinking down. Alex cannot sit upright yet because the ______ in his brain stem is not yet fully developed.

Cerebellum

Which sense is NOT sent to the cortex by the thalamus?

Smell

Which part of the brain is the link between the brain and the glandular system?

Hypothalamus

Jeff is undergoing brain surgery to remove a tumor. The surgeon applies electrical simulation to various areas around the tumor, causing Jeff to report tingling sensations in various areas of his skin. The tumor is most likely in which lobe of Jeff's brain?

Parietal lobe

George has a small stroke that results in a partial paralysis of his left side. The damaged area is most likely in his ______ lobe.

Right frontal lobe

Linda is recovering from damage to her brain. Her main symptom is a speech problem; instead of saying, "I am going to P. T. (physical therapy) at nine o'clock" she says, "I go P. T. non o'cot." Linda's issue is ______?

Damaged Broca's Aphasia

Recognizing the face of someone you run into at the mall is a function of the ______ hemisphere; being able to retrieve that person's name from memory is a function of the ______ hemisphere.

Right (sight), left (speech)

Heather is beautifully proportioned, but at 18 years of age she is still no taller than the average 10-year-old. Heather most likely had a problem in her ______ gland(s) while she was growing up.

Pituitary

The action of hormones in the bloodstream is most similar to which of the following?

The action of neurotransmitters in synapse

Melatonin is secreted by the ______ gland(s).

Pineal

You find that you have to add 1 teaspoon of sugar to a cup of coffee that already has 5 teaspoons of sugar in it to notice the difference in sweetness. If you have a cup of coffee with 10 teaspoons of sugar in it, how many teaspoons would you have to add to notice the difference in sweetness at least half the time?

2 teaspoons

Which of your senses habituates rather than adapts to constant stimuli?

Sound

Which of the following terms refers to the psychological effect of the length of light waves?

Color

Which of the following is responsible for controlling how much light enters the eye?

Iris

Which type of retinal cell forms the optic nerve?

Cones

Which type of retinal cell is responsible for peripheral vision?

Rods

Which set of colors are the primary colors when mixing light?

Red, blue, and green

Which of the following properties of sound would be the most similar to the brightness of light?

Loudness

The thin membrane stretched over the opening to the inner ear is the _______.

Ear drum

The _______ theory explains how we hear sounds between 100 and 1,000 Hz.

Volley theory

If a severe ear infection damages the bones of the middle ear, you may develop _______ hearing impairment.

Conduction

The sense of taste is closely related to the sense of _______.

Smell

The "bumps" on the tongue that are visible to the eye are the _______.

Taste buds

The olfactory receptor cells are located in the _______.

Top of the nasal passage

Which of the following statements about olfactory receptors is TRUE?

Olofactory cells replace themselves every 5-8 weeks

In the spinal cord, _____ inhibit(s) the release of substance "X".

endorphins

We know when we are moving up and down in an elevator because of the movement of tiny crystals in the _______.

Olilith organ

Ellis turns around and around in a circle. When he stops, he feels like his head is still spinning. What is responsible for this sensation?

Semicircular canals

An old comedy routine on television had a character who would line up the heads of people who were very far away from him between his fingers. Then he would pinch his fingers together and say gleefully, "I'm crushing your head, I'm crushing your head." The comedian was playing around with which perceptual constancy?

Size

Which Gestalt principle is at work when a ventriloquist moves the dummy's mouth while doing the talking, making it seem like the dummy is talking?

Contiguity principle

Researchers have been able to demonstrate depth perception in babies as young as _______months of age.

2

Which of the following occurs when one object seems to block another object?

Overlapping

The Müller-Lyer illusion exists in cultures in which there are _______.

No corners

Allison opened her new jigsaw puzzle but soon realized that the puzzle pieces inside had nothing to do with the picture on the box. With no picture to go by, she realized she would have to use _______.

Bottom-up processing

Which supposed ESP ability involves being able to "see" something that is not physically present by touching another object?

Clairvoyance

Most of our time awake is spent in a state called ______, in which our thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and we feel alert.

Waking consience

What are example of an altered state of consciousness?

Daydreaming, drinking beer, sleep, daydreaming

What is the circadian rhythm?

Daily functions

When light begins to fade at the end of the day, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the ______ signals the pineal gland to release ______.

Hypotholumus; melatonin

What factors are involved in the ability to go to sleep?

Heart rate, body temperature, and melatonin levels (NOT body mass)

The symptoms of sleep deprivation include all but which of the following?

All options except hypnic jerk

You hear about an accident that took place at 3:00 A.M. The car was travelling along and then seemed to drift into the opposing lane of traffic, hitting an oncoming car head on. Given the early morning time, you suspect that the driver of the car that drifted over the center line most likely experienced a ______.

Microsleep

It might be best to say that adaptive theory explains____, whereas restorative theory explains____ ?.

Adaptive theory: When we sleep; Restorative theory: Why we sleep

What is the first stage of sleep in which, if awakened, you will realize that you were asleep?

Stage 2

In which stage of sleep do night terrors occur?

Stages 3-4

Sleepwalking is defined and characterized by....

Genetic influence

Night terrors are most commonly found in...

children

Which of the following statements about REM sleep is FALSE?

REM causes psychological disorders

If you are in REM sleep but are able to move around and act out your dreams, you may have a rare condition called ______.

REM behavioral disorder

If you suddenly and without warning slip into REM sleep during the day, often falling down as you do so, you may have the condition called ______.

Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into the nasal passages is called ______.

Sleep apnea

Randall tells his therapist that he had a dream about riding on a train that went through a tunnel. The therapist tells Randall that his dream was most likely about sexual intercourse, as the tunnel represents a woman's vagina. Randall's therapist is using the ______ theory of dreams to explain Randall's dream.

Freud's

Hypnosis has been shown to do all of the following BUT ______.

Regress people back to childhood experiences

Jackie used Ecstasy while she was in college, but now that she has a government job she has avoided using any recreational drugs. Although she had no problem quitting, she still finds that every now and then she gets a strong craving to use Ecstasy again. Her craving is most likely the result of ______.

Psychological dependence

Which of the following drugs are NOT a naturally occurring substance?

Amphetamines

Which of the following drugs are NOT a depressant?

PCP

Alcohol actually ______ the release of GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits many brain functions.

stimulates

What is sleep deprivation?

Not getting enough sleep for normal functions

"Magic mushrooms" are the source of ....___

Psilocybin

High doses of marijuana can lead to....

Hallucinations

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