the most basic and deepest attitudes, values, interest, motives, and self worth of a person - the "real person"
how someone typically responds to the environment. Based on values of psychological core.
Role Related Behavior
how one acts in a particular social situation. Behavior changes as your perceptions of the environment change.
behavior is determined by unconscious constantly changing factors that are in conflict with each other. Emphasis on understanding a person as a whole rather the identifying isolated characteristics
behavior is determined by relatively stable traits. Personality traits are consistent in a variety of situations.
behavior determined by situation or environment. Situation is more important at determinant then personality traits. ex: introvert being assertive during a mugging or football player being violent when he is not.
behavior determined by both person and the situational factors as well by interactions. How a person responds depends on environment and psychological traits. ex: hostile person at a football game will not be hostile in front of his mom but will in front of his friends.
behavior determined by accounting for situational and personal characteristics. Their outlook on themselves will be in direct relation with how they act.
Big five model #1
neuroticism vs. emotional stability
nervous, depressed, anxiety vs. emotional stability
Big five model #2
extroversion vs. introversion
sociable vs. introvert
Big five model #3
openness to experience- curiosity, need for variety
Big five model #4
agreeableness - amiability, modesty
Big five model #5
Conscientiousness - achievement striving, self discipline
personality style characterized by setting high standards standards, striving for flawlessness, and being overly critical. Leads to both good and bad consequences.
Research on Psychodynamic approach
impact: little influence, hasn't been adopted
weakness: focuses on internal determinants not on environment.
contribution: awareness of unconscious determinants.
Research on Trait Approach
impact: little influence
weakness: traits will not always help predict behavior in certain situations.
contribution: emphasizes importance of traits.
Research on Situational Approach
impact: little influence
weakness: situation will not always influence ones behavior.
contribution: emphasizes importance of situation
Research on Interactional Approach
impact: considerable influence. Has been adopted by modern sport psychologist.
contribution: emphasizes consideration of both traits and situation = behavior
Research on Phenomenological Approach
impact: considerable influence. Has been adopted by contemporary sport psychologist.
contribution: emphasizes how a person sees themselves and the environment = behavior
Measuring Personality: 2 types
situation-specific and general
What way of Measuring Personality is more accurate?
Situation-specific and general both consider
personality, and specific situation (interactional approach)
Most effect way to compare test results?
with a person's own previous test scores... rather then a group of norms.
are interesting but difficult to score.