a) usually arises from melanocytes in a preexisting mole.
b) is the least dangerous form of skin cancer.
c) rarely metastasizes.
d) is the least dangerous form of skin cancer and usually arises from melanocytes in a preexisting mole.
e) is the most common type of skin cancer.
The nail grows from the
c) stratum corneum.
d) nail matrix.
e) nail body.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) The production of cells within the nail matrix results in the growth of the nail.
b) The cells of a nail are filled with a special hard type of keratin.
c) The nail consists of layers of living cells from the stratum corneum.
d) Nails grow continually and do not have a resting stage.
e) The nail matrix and nail bed have a stratum basale.
Which of the following conditions is incorrectly paired with its symptoms
a) Vitamin A deficiency - excess keratin deposits in skin leading to sand paper-like texture
b) iron deficiency anemia - nails become flat or concave (spoon-like)
c) psoriasis - fungal infection causing circular scaly lesions
d) cyanosis - bluish color of skin resulting from decreased blood oxygen content
e) acne - inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands
The shaft is a structural component found associated with
a) hair (or hair follicle).
c) nails (or nail bed).
d) sensory receptors.
The lunula is part of the
a) nail body.
c) nail root.
d) stratum corneum.
e) nail matrix.
___________ is a fungal infection of the skin.
Cells of the epidermis are linked together via __________ which rivet the plasma membranes of the two cells together with a network of fine proteins and intercellular cement.
a) gap junctions
b) voltage gated ion channels
d) tight junctions
Paul is on the newest diet craze. After a couple of weeks of eating only carrots and carrot based products, he begins to notice that his skin has a decidedly yellowish tint. This is because
a) his change in diet has nothing to due with the yellowish tint. It is just a natural change due to aging.
b) excess melanin from his diet has accumulated in the lipids of the dermis.
c) liver damage has occurred, and bile pigments are building up.
d) excess carotene from his diet has accumulated in the lipids of the stratum corneum.
e) he has recently been exposed to a lot of ultraviolet light.
Which of the following helps in preventing the spread and growth of some types of skin cancer to other areas of the body?
a) an avascular (with out blood vessels) epidermis
b) basement membranes and an avascular (with out blood vessels) epidermis are correct.
c) gap junctions
d) basement membranes
e) gap junctions and basement membranes are correct
When exposed to the cold, the ears and nose may appear red. This is because
a) cyanosis occurs when blood flow slows down.
b)blood vessels in the nose and ears have constricted to conserve heat.
c) cold causes an inflammatory reaction in the nose and ears.
d) the nose and ears have a thicker, more keratinized stratum corneum than the rest of the face.
e) blood vessels dilate to prevent tissue damage from the cold.
The type of glands that lubricate skin and hair and protect against some bacteria are
a) both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands.
b) apocrine sweat glands.
c) All glands of the skin have this property.
d) sebaceous glands.
e) eccrine sweat glands.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of aging of the integumentary system?
a) decreased number of melanocytes
b) increase in activity of sweat and sebaceous glands
c) loss of elastic fibers in the skin
d) loss of pigment in hair
e) skin becomes thinner and more transparent
Which of the following statements is true concerning skin cancer?
a) Basal cell carcinoma produces an open ulcer.
b) Squamous cell carcinoma often arises from a preexisting mole.
c) Squamous cell carcinoma arises from cells within the stratum basale.
d) Malignant melanoma poses little danger of metastasis.
e) All of these statements are true.
a) consists of collagen and elastic fibers.
b) is responsible for most of the structural strength of the skin.
c) contains fibroblasts, fat cells, and macrophages.
d) has dermal papillae.
e) has all of these characteristics.
Regeneration of the epidermis in a second degree burn
a) comes from epithelial cells within the hair follicles and sweat glands.
b) comes from epithelial cells at the edges of the damaged area.
c) requires the use of skin grafts.
d)comes from epithelial cells within the hair follicles and sweat glands and comes from epithelial cells at the edges of the damaged area are correct.
e) All of these are correct.
Stratified epithelial tissues
a) have multiple layers of cells that hinder movement of materials into the body and are found in areas of the body where abrasions can occur are correct.
b) aid in the movement of materials into the body.
c) are found in areas of the body where abrasions can occur.
d) have a single layer of cells and a basement membrane.
e) have multiple layers of cells that hinder movement of materials into the body.
You would normally expect to find ____________________ in the outer layer of skin.
a) stratified squamous epithelium
b) transitional epithelium
c) simple columnar epithelium
d) simple squamous epithelium
e) simple cuboidal epithelium
a) is a pigment produced by cells in the stratum corneum.
b) is produced by melanocytes.
c) is responsible for cyanosis.
d) is responsible for birthmarks.
e) is all of these.
Which of the following is FALSE?
a) In partial thickness burns, some part of the stratum basale remains intact and able to regenerate.
b) In a first degree burn, regeneration of the epidermis comes from within the burn area and from the undamaged tissues at the edges of the burn.
c) Partial thickness burns can also be classified as first or second degree burns based on the degree of damage to the skin.
d) In partial thickness burns, the dermis and the epidermis are completely destroyed.
Heavy smoking destroys pseudostratified ciliated epithelium in the trachea ("windpipe"). Which of these conditions might occur in the trachea if replacement epithelial cells were not ciliated?
a) accumulation of mucus in the trachea
b) accumulation of foreign particles in the trachea
c) increased coughing
d) Both accumulation of foreign particles in the trachea and increased coughing would be expected.
e) All of these would be expected.
a) is a process that epidermal cells undergo as they move to the surface.
b) produces cells filled with keratin.
c) gives the stratum corneum its structural strength.
d) produces an outer layer of epidermal cells that resist abrasion.
e) has all of these properties.
a) are also called partial thickness burns.
b) cause immediate pain.
c) involve only the epidermis.
d) result in excessive fluid loss.
e) have all of these characteristics.
Which of the following statements about hair is NOT correct?
a) The hair follicle is an extension of the epidermis into the dermis.
b) The cuticle is a single layer of overlapping cells that holds the hair in the follicle.
c) Hair grows in cycles.
d) The hair root and shaft are made up of continuously dividing cells.
e) The hair follicle can be an important source of epithelial cells for repairing areas of the surface epidermis.
The type of glands that open into a hair follicle and have a thick organic secretion are
a) sebaceous glands.
b) All glands of the skin have this property.
c) eccrine sweat glands.
d) both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands.
e) apocrine sweat glands.
Epithelium that consists of a single layer of cells, in which some cells are tall and thin and reach the free surface and others do not, is classified as
a) simple columnar epithelium.
b) pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
c) transitional epithelium.
d) simple squamous epithelium.
e) stratified squamous epithelium.
To be safe and effective, sunscreen preparations should block
a) all forms of radiation other than UVA or UVB.
b) both UVA and UVB.
c) UVB only.
d) UVA only.
The appearance of age spots is typified by
a) altered blood flow to the skin (overall or in small areas).
b) collection of abnormal pigment (not melanin) in the skin.
c) increased production of melanin by normal number of melanocytes.
d) decreased oxygen content of blood.
e) increased number of active melanocytes.
Which of the following functions of the integumentary system is NOT correctly matched with an example?
a) sensation — pain, heat, cold, and pressure receptors in the skin
b) temperature regulation — radiation and convection of heat from blood flowing in the dermis
c) excretion — hydrogen ions are moved from the skin into the urine
d) vitamin D production — active vitamin D is produced from a precursor molecule
e) All of these are correctly matched.
a) can be used to estimate total body fat.
b) is usually considered to be part of the skin itself.
c) is a layer of dense connective tissue.
d) is the layer between the dermis and epidermis.
e) has all of these characteristics.
a) is also called subcutaneous tissue.
b) is loose connective tissue that attaches the skin to underlying bone and muscle.
c) is important for padding and insulation.
d) contains about half of the body's stored fat.
e) has all of these characteristics.
In the figure, the letter A best represents
a) the subcutaneous tissue.
b) a sweat gland.
c) a hair follicle.
d) an arrector pili muscle.
e) a sebaceous gland.
When a cancer is said to have metastasized, it means that
a) it has broken through the epidermis and formed a freckle on the skin.
b) it has stopped growing.
c) it has changed color and shrunk in size.
d) it has spread to other areas of the body.
e) it has been destroyed by the body's defenses.
Racial variations in skin color are determined by:
a) the number of melanocytes
b) the amount and type of melanin produced
c) the distribution and deposition of melanin
d) all of the above
e) B and C only.
One of the most immediately life-threatening results of burns to large areas of the body is
a) total suppression of the immune system.
b) dangerously high systemic blood pressures.
c) depression of overall metabolic rate.
d) decreased systemic blood pressure and development of cardiovascular shock.
e) decreased permeability of remaining capillaries in damaged area.
A yellowish skin color could be the result of
a) liver damage.
b) decreased oxygen content in blood.
c) allergic reactions.
d) scarlet fever.