high when buyers have many choices and low when their choices are few competitive advantages are created to get buyers to stay with a given company.
ex: Netflix- set up and maintain your movie list
threat of substitute products and services
high when there are many alternatives for buyers and low when there are few alternatives.
ex: switching cost can reduce threat, switching to another product or service, long term contract with financial penalty
threat of new entrants
high when it is easy for competitive to enter the market and low when entry barriers are significant.
ex: Chase vs. JPB
product or service feature that customers have come to expect and that must be offered by an entering organization
ex: Banking- Atms, online bill pay, etc.