J. Wile Biology Module 2 Study Guide Questions

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What is the most popular means by which bacteria obtain food?

heterotrophic decomposers

If a bacterium is parasitic, is it heterotrophic or autotrophic?

heterotrophic

List the basic steps in asexual reproduction among bacteria.

DNA loop is attached to membrane. Is copied, and cell wall elongates. Eventually the DNA splits completely into two.

A sample of food is dehydrated, which kills all of the bacteria. however, in a few days, bacteria-free water is added to the food in a bacteria-free environment. Nevertheless, microscopic investigations indicate that bacteria are in the food. How did the bacteria get there?

The bacteria was already in the food as endospores, which were saved by the water.

What kind of growth does a population of bacteria experience when just a few of them are placed in an environment rich with resources?

exponential growth

A population of bacteria experiences logistic growth. What can you say about the resources of their environment?

they are limited, but enough for some of the bacteria to carry on.

Even though the genetic recombination among bacteria does not result in offspring, it can significantly affect the growth of the population. Why?

Because later, when the bacteria that have done genetic recombination reproduce, their children will have the DNA the parent bacterium got.

What are the technical names of the three common bacterial shapes?

coccus, bacillus, and spirillum

A bacterium lives in boiling-hot water. To what phylum and class does it most likely belong?

Phylum Mendosicutes, Class Archaebacteria

In the six-kingdom classification system, what replaces kingdom Monera?

kingdoms Archebacteria and Eubacteria.

What conditions are ideal for most bacteria to grow and reproduce?

Moisture, moderate temperature, nutrition, darkness, and the right amount of oxygen.

What methods exist for reducing the chance of bacterial contamination of food?

Canning, dehydrating, freezing, and pasteurization.

Name the parts of a bacteria.

ribosome, fimbria, cell wall, cytoplasm, DNA, capsule, flagellum, plasma membrane

What is a capsule?

A layer of sticky sugars that help bacteria cling to things.

What is a cell wall?

What holds the contents of the bacterium together.

What is the plasma membrane?

A membrane made of phospholipids and proteins. It also decides what chemicals to let into the cell.

What is the cytoplasm?

A semifluid substance that holds DNA and ribosomes.

What are fimbriae?

They are what grasp surfaces, helping the capsule, and also grasp other bacteria during reproduction- they are then called sex pili.

What is the flagellum?

What moves the bacteria around.

What must an organism have to be in Phylum Firmicutes?

It must be Gram-positive (retaining a stain)

What must an organism have to be in Phylum Gracilicutes?

It must be Gram-negative (not retaining a stain)

What must an organism have to be in Phylum Tenericutes?

It must have no cell walls.

What must an organism have to be in phylum mendosicutes?

It must have exotic cell walls.

What are the three classes in phylum Gracilicutes, and what distinguishes them from one another?

1. Scotobacteria- non-photosynthetic bacteria.
2. Anoxyphotobacteria- photosynthetic bacteria that do not produce oxygen.
3. Oxyphotobacteria- photosynthetic bacteria that produce oxygen.

What are the two classes in Phylum Firmicutes, and what distinguishes them from one another?

1. Class Firmibacteria- cocci and bacilli bacteria.
2. Class Thallobacteria- any other shape bacteria.

What is the class in Phylum Tenericutes?

Class Mollicutes.

What is the class in Phylum Mendosicutes?

Class Archaebacteria.

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