3 Written Questions
3 Multiple Choice Questions
- Juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Autosomal recessive. Causes hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, alkalosis, hyperaldosteronism, and hyerreninemia. Presents between 6-12 months with FTT, constipation, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia. Treatment is fluid replacement, potassium correction, and nutrition.
- Most common hereditary nephritis. Typical presentation is microscopic hematuria, especially after URI. 30 - 75% of cases are associated with progressive hearing loss. End stage renal failure is common by 20s - 30s. Usually x-linked. Ocular abnormalities may be seen, as well as rare leiomyomatosis of esophagus or respiratory tract.
- Often seen post strep infection. Common presentation is fatigue, cola-colored urine, and elevated blood pressure. Fluid intake should be restricted when oliguria is present.
2 True/False Questions
Idiopathic hypercalciuria → 8 year old with intermittent burning upon urination and trace blood on dipstick. Characterized by persistent microscopic hematuria and intermittent macroscopic hematuria. Accompanied by abdominal pain and dysuria without stone formation.
Varicocele → Accumulation of fluid in the tunica vaginalis around testicle. Transilluminates well. Small ones usually spontaneously resolve within a year. Larger ones may require surgery. Seen in 2% of male neonates.