Forensic Science Notes on Blood Typing

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Human blood groups were discovered in?

1901 by Karl Landsteiner

Mixing two types of blood can lead to?

agglutination

What is agglutination?

(blood clumping)

What can cause toxic reactions?

agglutination

Who learned why this was occurring and how to fix the issue?

Landsteiner

Have much blood do human adults have?

4-6 liters of blood circulating in their body

What does blood consist of?

Plasma

cells floating around in a fluid is called?

Plasma

What does plasma consist of?

Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets

What are the parts of blood?

The red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, plasma

What do red blood cells contain?

hemoglobin

What is hemoglobin?

(a protein that binds oxygen)

What is a protein that binds oxygen?

hemoglobin

What do the red blood cells do?

transport oxygen to, and remove carbon dioxide from, the body tissues

What do the white blood cells do?

fights infection

What fights infection?

white blood cells

What helps blood clot?

platelets

What contains salts and various kinds of proteins?

Plasma

Differences in human blood are due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called?

antigens and antibodies

What are located on the surface of the red blood cells?

Antigens

What are in the blood plasma?

Antibodies

Your blood group is determined by what?

What you inherit from your parents

How many genetically determined blood group systems are known?

more than 20

What are the most important blood groups used for blood transfusions

ABO and Rh groups

According to the ABO blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types:

A, B, AB or O

If you belong to the blood group A, you have what antigens on the surface of your red blood cells?

A

If you belong to the blood group A you have what antibodies in your blood plasma?

B

If you belong to the blood group B, you have What antigens on the surface of your red blood cells?

B

If you belong to the blood group B, you have what antibodies in your blood plasma?

A

If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both what antigens on the surface of your red blood cells?

A and B

If you belong to the blood group AB, you have what

A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma.

If you belong to the blood group O (null), you have neither what antigens on the surface of your red blood cells?

A or B

If you belong to the blood group O (null), you have both what antibodies in your blood plasma?

A and B

There is also an Rh factor on red blood cells:

Have antigen Rh+
No antigen Rh-

A person with Rh- blood does not have what antibodies naturally in the blood plasma?

Rh

Rh is another term for?

O- blood

An Rh+ person has no problem receiving blood from an what donor?

Rh-

Step one in blood typing:

Mix the blood with the three different antibodies, A, B and Rh.

Step two in blood typing:

Then look at what has happened.

Step three in blood typing:

In which mixtures has agglutination occurred?

Step four in blood typing:

The agglutination indicates the blood has reacted with a certain antibody.

Step five in blood typing:

Therefore it is not compatible with blood containing that kind of antibody.

Step six in blood typing:

If the blood does not agglutinate, it indicates that the blood does not have the antigens binding the special antibody in the reagent.

Step seven in blood typing:

If you know which antigens are in the person's blood, it's easy to figure out which blood group he or she belongs to!

What is happening when the blood clumps or agglutinates?

For a successful blood transfusion, ABO and Rh blood groups must be compatible between donor and patient.
If not, the red blood cells from the donated blood will clump or agglutinate.

Agglutinated red cells can

clog blood vessels and stop the circulation of the blood to various parts of the body.

Agglutinated red blood cells also

crack and its contents leak out in the body.

Clumping looks like?

A bunch of grapes together-can cause death

A blood can be given to persons with blood group what?

Blood group A

B blood to a person with blood group what? (and so on)?

Blood group B

Transfusions will work if?

a person who is receiving blood has blood that doesn't have any antibodies against the donor blood's antigens.

But if a person who is receiving blood has antibodies matching the donor blood's antigens, the red blood cells in the donated blood will what?

clump

People with blood group O are called?

"universal donors"

people with blood group AB are called what?

"universal receivers."

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