3 Types of Learning
1. Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning
2. Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning
3. Observational (Social) Leaning
1.First to describe classical conditioning.
3.Interested in saliva's role in digestion
4.Ran experiments with dogs
5.Won a nobel prize in 1904
Stimulus that elicits a particular response (reflexive, involuntary reactions) without the necessity of learning.
Involuntary, automatic response that occurs to a stimulus without the necessity of learning
Stimulus that does not elicit a particular response initially but comes to do so as a result of becoming associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Response that comes to be made to the conditioned stimulus as a result of classical conditioning.
Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian)
The process in which an organism learns to associate stimuli, and thus anticipate events. Simple, occurs across species.
Conditioned Stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, Conditioned stimulus begins to elicit the Conditioned response
Unconditioned stimulus no longer follows the conditioned stimulus, conditioned response eventually disappears.
5 Major Conditioning Processes
If the conditioned stimulus is presented again to the subject after a period of rest, the conditioned response reappears.
Responding occurs in the presence of one stimulus, but not in the presence of another.
Ran Experiments with cats in puzzle boxes, First studied operant conditioning. Proposed Law of Effect.
Law of Effect
If a response in a presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and the response will be strenghened. if the response is followed by an annoying event, the association will be weakened.
The process whereby an organism learns to associate a response and its consequences and thus to repeat acts followed by rewards and avoid acts followed by punishment. occurs across species.
Events that are innately reinforcing (food, water, things with biological significance)
Nothing to do with punishment. Removal of an aversive stimulus increases the probablity of behavior.
1.Method of successive approximations.
2. Reward responses that are ever-closer to the final desired behavior.
3.Must ignore all previous or unrelated behavior.
Proposed the Social Learning Theory. Experimented with children and observationally learned behaviors.
Advantages of Social Learning
1. Economy-Usually saves time
2. Less dangerous than trial and error
3. Allows for flexible behavior
4. Transmission of knowledge
When do we start imitating?
1.Facial expressions can be imitated by infants as young as 2 or 3 weeks old.
2. 9 month old infants can imitate a novel play behaviour.
3. 14 month olds can imitate acts modeled on television.
Aspects that determine the likelihood of imitation in children
1. Outcome of modeled behavior
2. Similarity between observer and model.
3. Status of model
Bandura, Ross, and Ross, 1961
Experiment with children and bobo dolls. Studied if agression could be learned.
Information Processing Model
Assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory.
Information is stored with very little effort. Examples: Knowledge of event frequency, time and location.
Effort to encode and remember information is required. Examples: Concepts for an exam.
2. First to consistently study memory.
3. Considered the father of memory.
4. Used nonsense syllables to find that the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning and the benefits of over learning.
Tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
1. Described by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968.
2. Says the human memory system is composed of 3 stages of memory system which information must pass.
3. 3 stages are Sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory.
1.First stage of information processing.
2.Sensory receptors are stimulated by external energy.
3.Two types: Iconic Memory and Echoic Memory.
4. Sensory memory can only be maintained for a short amount of time.
Short Term Memory
Has a limited storage capacity. Holds memory for only a limited period, unless rehearsal is used. Then is transferred to Long Term Memory.
Digit Span Test
Used to test short term memory capacity by George A. Miller. Says that memory can hold approximatively 5 to 9 items short term.
George A. Miller
2. Used digit span test.
3. Found that the short term memory can only hold around 7 items at a time.
Updates to Stage Model
1. Some information can go straight to long term memory, without conscious awareness.
2. Working memory vs. short term memory. Associates new and old information and solves problems. Information that is important or novel that we focus our attention on.
Error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory.
Severe deficit in remembering events caused by problems in the functioning of the memory areas of the brain. Causes: Alzheimer's disease, strokes, chronic alcoholism, brain damage.
The forming of mental pictures of the items, people, words, or activities you want to remember.