The __ is a passageway shared by both food and air.
What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out of the lungs?
Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across
In the capillaries of the head, oxygen released from hemoglobin first difusss into the
Most carbon dioxide is carried in the blood as
High-flying birds are able to obtain enough oxygen even when the air is very thin for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
they have more efficient lungs than other vertebrates
If you were to move from a sea level high altitude, your body would respond with all of the following adaptations EXCEPT an
increase in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen
The most basic reason why animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is that
without it, animals cannot obtain enough energy from their food
The main waste product of aerobic respiration is
The process of mocing air in and out of the lungs is called
Animals that use their body surface for gas exchange must
have a high ratio of body surgace area to volume
The part of an animal where gas exchange occurs is called the
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a terrestrial animal spends much more energy than an aquatic animal ventilating its respiratory surface
Gills are generally unsuitable for animals living on land because
the wet surfaces tend to stick tofether and collapse when exposed to air
Which of the following is likely to have the lowest concentration of O2?
a warm salt water
The organization of blood and water flow in a fish's gills increase the fish's ability to extract oxygen from the water because
the deoxygenated blood entering a gill lamella encounters deoxygenated water first
Which of the following in NOT a characteristic of fish gills?
they have poor blood supply
The chief advantage of exchanging gases in water is that
no energy need be expended to keep the exchange surface wet
In the countercurrent exchange systems of fish gills
the blood and water flow in opposite directions
Which one of the following in NOT true?
vocal chords in our bronchi allow us to speak
Which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to its overall body size?
Which of the following choices lists the correct path of carbon dioxide moving out from the interior of the body?
alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx
Which of the following in NOT a function of that nasal cavities in humans?
secretion of excess carbon dioxide into exhaled air
Which of the following components of the respiratory system does NOT have a ciliated surface covered by a thing film of mucus?
Which one of the following statements is not true?
Breathing secondary cigarette smoke is not a serious health risk
Cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke
all of the choices are correct
Why do cigarette smokers cough more than most people?
cigarette smoke destroys the cilia that normally move debris out of the lungs. coughing is the remaining way to clean the lungs.
The maximum amount of air that a human can inhale and exhale is called the
Air leaving human lungs during exhalation contains
carbon dioxide and oxygen
Compared to the vital capacity, how much air can the lungs actually hold?
The function of air sacs in birds is to
permit one--way ventilation of the lungs
Which of the following statements is NOT true about inhalation in birds?
The anterior sacs fill with air, and the posterior sacs empty
Which of the following is the main reason why bird lungs are more efficient at extracting oxygen from air than the best mammalian lungs?
the bird lung has no residual volume because it is composed of tiny tubes through which air passes in only one direction
Inhalation in humans is achieved by
contraction of the diaphragm and chest muscle
When you are breathing gently, exhalation results mainly from
the relaxation of the chest muscles and diaphragm
Explain countercurrent exchange in fish gills in depth.