A&P Test 5 - Muscles Review

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Test 5 Review - Muscles

secretion

All of the following are functions of muscles except

antagonists

What term best describes the relationship between the pronator quadratus and supinator?

fascicles

Muscle fibers are arranged in bundles called

fleshy attachment

Which of the following describes an appearance of red muscular tissue emerging directly from bone rather than being separated from it by an obvious tendon?

fascia

What separates groups of muscles?

receiving calcium ions from the nerve ending

A muscle fiber depends on which of the following for excitation?

trapezius

Which of the following extensors of the head is the most superficial?

sternocleidomastoid

In a whiplash injury, the neck undergoes forced hyperextension then hyperflexion, injuring multiple muscles in the neck. Which of the following muscles would be injured during the hyperextension phase of the injury?

sternal manubrium and medial one-third of clavicle; mastoid process and lateral half of superior nuchal line

Which of the following correctly states the origin and insertion of the sternocleidomastoid?

trapezius and serratus anterior

The muscles that laterally rotate and depress the scapula, as in shrugging and lowering the shoulders, are the

accessory nerve

Which cranial nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius?

It rotates the scapula and depresses the apex of the shoulder.

Which of the following is true regarding the levator scapulae?

biceps brachii.

The antagonist for the triceps brachii is the

4

Which muscle(s) in the figure insert(s) on the head of the fibula?

2, 4 and 5

Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) innervated by the tibial nerve?

1, 2 and 5

Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) responsible for medially rotating the tibia?

3

Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) responsible for abducting and medially rotating the thigh?

1

Which muscle(s) in the figure is(are) innervated by the obturator nerve?

ruptured calcaneal tendon

A clinician induces contraction of the gastrocnemius and soleus and notices that the foot does not plantar flex as expected. Which of the following would be a logical diagnosis?

calcaneal tendon; his triceps surae

A heavyset middle-aged insurance salesman who doesn't exercise often accepts his friend's invitation to a pickup basketball game. When attempting a jump shot, he falls to the ground in pain, grasping at the calf of his leg. There is an enormous bulge in his leg immediately below the knee, and he is unable to plantarflex that foot. Most likely he has injured his ___ and the bulge is ___.

biceps femoris

An Olympic sprinter readies for a race. After the sound of the starting gun, he propels himself forward from the starting block and immediately grimaces in pain, grabbing for the back of his thigh. Within 48 hours he begins noticing extensive bruising on the back of his thigh extending into the back of the knee. He now has difficulty rising from a seated position and flexing his knee. Bending at the waist generates more pain. Which muscle is likely injured?

thigh adductors

After childbirth a woman begins experiencing tremendous pain in her groin, making it difficult for her to walk. She has difficulty walking due to the pain. An X-ray shows a fracture extending from her symphysis pubis to the inferior ramus of the pubis. As a result of the fracture, which group of muscles might be impaired?

quadriceps femoris

A skydiver's parachute fails to deploy. After some struggle, his reserve chute deploys in time to save his life. However, his landing is harder than normal and he feels his knee slightly hyperextend. He shakes it off and goes about his normal routine. Later that day he begins experiencing knee pain. Two days later he notices that his knee "pops" when he crouches and soon discovers he has dislocated his femur on the knee. What muscle was likely injured initially?

Functions of Muscles

Movement, stability, communication, control of body openings and passages, heat production and glycemic control

Endomysium

Connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber

Perimysium

Connective tissue that bundles muscle fibers together into fascicles

Epimysium

Connective tissue that encloses the entire skeletal muscle

Spinal Accessory Nerve

Also called the cranial nerve 11 or CNXI - controls motor innervation from the central nervous system to the two muscles of the neck: the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the trapezius muscle

Trapezius Muscle

Superficial muscle of the neck that extends the head

Sternocleidomastoid Muscle

Origin: Manubrium of sternum; medial one-third of clavicle

Insertion: Mastoid process; lateral half of superior nuchal line

Action: Abducts, rotates and flexes head

Innervation: Spinal Accessory Nerve - Cranial Nerve XI

Levator Scapulae

Origin: Transverse processes of vertebrae C1-C4

Insertion: Superior angle to medial border of scapula

Action: Elevates scapula if cervicle vertebrae are fixed; flexes neck laterally if scapula is fixed; retracts scapula and braces shoulder; rotates scapula and dpresses apex of shoulder

Innervation: Spinal nerves C3-C4, and C5 via posterior scapular nerve

Gastrocnemius and Plantar Flexing

The gastrocnemius muscle does not plantar flex when the achilles tendon has been injured. The gastrocnemius muscles are directly attached to the achilles tendon making plantar flexing painful or impossible when the achilles tendon has been compromised.

Nerve Stimulation

Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle do not rely on nerve stimulation to contract

Tetanus

Sustained muscle contraction

Threshold Stimulus

Minimun stimulus needed to cause a muscle contraction

Striations

Alternating light and dark bands of a muscle. A-Bands (anisotropic) are the dark bands that consist of thick filament or myosin. I-Bands (isotropic) are the light bands consisting of thin filament or actin.

Wave Summation

Results from one wave of muscle contraction added to another. When a muscle contracts and then partially reflexes when another stimulus occurs.

Aerobic Respiration

Produces about another 36 ATP per glucose than glycolysis does.

Troponin

Protein that acts as a calcium receptor in skeletal muscle

Triceps Brachii Contract

Biceps Brachii relaxes

Trapezius Muscle

Origin: Posterior Occipital Bone, ligamentum nuchae, C7-T12

Quadriceps Femoris

Origin: Tibial Tuberosity

Psoas Muscle

Insertion: Lesser Trochanter of Femur

Biceps Femoris

Insertion: Head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia

Tibialis Posterior

Insertion: Second through fourth metatarsals and some tarsals

Supinator Muscle

Action: Supinates forearm

Twitch

Muscle contraction produced at threshold stimulus.

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