apush ch 12-13

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farm communities

these were the center of rural life and linked farmers with the rest of the world

farm communities

people in these towns believed in communal values and community over competition

the shakers

these were founded by anne lee. they were big on agriculture and handcrafts.

the shakers

believed that the end of the world was near and that sin entered the world through sex.

the shakers

had communities that were families, there were no individual families

the mormons

this group was started/spread by joseph smith

the mormons

was awaiting the second coming and thought only people of their kind could be saved. these people also believed in polygamy.

brook farm

utopian community near boston that was inspired by transcendentalism

brook farm

people here rejected materialism and favored rural communalism. they had good carpenter skills and were similar to the shakers.

transcendentalism

the belief that the physical world is secondary to the spiritual realm. these people believed in higher powers, not God.

american renaissance

this was inspired by transcendentalist writers who began to see things differently because of nature.

american renaissance

had writings about moral truths. the themes were universal and very american.

ralph waldo emerson

was a big part in the transcendental movement. he preached indiviualism and self reliance.

american renaissance writers

focused on universal themes and humanity

california gold rush

during this, people abused the land and left it unsuitable for anything when they were done. most never found gold.

forty-niners

most of these people never found enough gold to pay off their expenses and made it so alot of food and agriculture was needed in california to support all of them, so the agriculture business booms as did the jobs in that field

women

not alot were in the gold rush, but those who were provided domestic services

farming

forty niners resorted to this when they couldnt find gold, leading to the agricultural boom

urban problems

people flooded cities too fast, ppl there couldn't prepare for them. much disease and polluted water.

mass transit

the biggest cause for people going to cities

horace mann

secretary of board of ed. made school yr 6 mo and supported free, state sponsored ed. thought education would end all problems/ bad things

urban riots

caused by political, social, racial, and ethnic conflict erupting in the streets

urban riots

led to formation of gangs, and later on, uniformed policemen

urban riots

the main cause of these was competition for jobs; everyone was competing against eachother

alexis de tocqueville

said the US was a good place for WHITE males. visited all the states and connected mobility with equality; the more people could move around, the more chances they had to start anew

inherited/marriage

most wealth was..

wealth

this was concentrated in a small number of people. the top 10% of people held 3/4 of land.

wealthy

lived under standards that would help them remain elite

urban poor

lived in hoods w/o opportunity. women couldn't find jobs, so families couldn't be supported.

poverty

hit immigrants, free blacks, working poor, and single moms.

NYC five points

this neighborhood was mostly immigrant irish and freed blacks. very poor, one of the worst slums in the world.

urban middle class

lived in LUXURY (toliets, running water, large houses). depended on possessions to show class.

cult of domesticity

the belief that women should only be teachers or supporters of the husbands. this was the ideal role for women to partake in society.

irish immigrants

came because there was a potato famine, and were eventually defeated by the english.

irish immigrants

settled mostly in urban areas

irish immigrants

were celtic not british

scandanavian immigrants

settled in rural areas

anti-catholic sentiment

motivated mainly by economic competition. citizens feared that irish would take their jobs, so blamed them for all their problems.

german immigrants

hard working, self-reliant, smart.

german immigrants

came to america for political reasons, not economic.

german immigrants

celebrated on the sabbath by making sausages and drinking beer. this led to discrimination.

Hispanics

never migrated to america, america expanded its borders therefore making them residents of US. originally lived in texas.

Hispanics

viewed as 2nd class citizens.

free black population

grows greatly from 1830-1860 because of the underground railroad

free black population growth

causes more segregation and discrimination

black nationalism

held ideas of racial solidarity, self-help, and growing interest in africa. blacks fled to canada/af while europeans flooded into US.

Pierce butler

slaveholder in debt who held the largest slave drive ever to get out of debt.

low population density

was in older plantation and frontier areas.

population in non-slaves states E of Mis.R.

was 3x higher

whites

said slavery was "positive good" and "necessary evil"

proslavery arguments

whites=intellectual blacks=physical

proslavery arguments

slavery is an economic necessity/ profitable

proslavery arguments

blacks are created to be low in society

proslavery arguments

bible defends use of slaves

proslavery arguments

slavery is good because it is taking care of an inferior race

slavery

is ALL based on skin color

yeoman farmers

didn't have slaves, owned land and grew crops

yeoman farmers

valued self-reliance and freedom from other's control

yeoman farmers

wanted to get slaves so they could move up in society

yeoman folk culture

family, community, faith

75%

of whites did NOT own slaves

landless whites of the antebellum south

owned only items, NO land. were irish immigrants who did dangerous work.

landless whites

worked towards buying land to move up in society

free blacks

had conditions worse than yeoman farmers but better than slaves.

free blacks

could not own land or guns, and had to labor in fields with slaves

slave holding planters

top of society

1%

of slaveholding planters had large plantations with lots of slaves, but most were yeoman planters w few slaves.

paternalism

the believe that you are obligated to take care of someone who is incapable of taking care of themselves

paternalism

masks/hides racism

paternalists

not oppressors, 'guardians'

paternalism

focused more on obligations than the profitable aspects of commercial agriculture.

women of the planter class

not allowed to challenge society's rues on sexual/racil relation

women of the planter class

oversee slaves cooking and watch children

women of the planter class

couldn't speak up about their husbands having sex with slaves

ostrich game

wives would stick their 'heads in the ground' as if not to notice their husbands having sex with slaves

southern slaves

got a little more than the bare necessities--enough to eat, but plain diets, bc masters wanted them to be able to do work. No shoes. One room cabins.

slaves

started work before dawn and worked until dusk. (gang labor system)

gang labor system

sun to sun. women/children work hard. get beat if you dont meet enough harvesting.

the task system

slaves were assigned measured amounts of work to be performed in a given amount of time

the task system

was more affective than gang labor system because it gave more freedom to slaves

authority

was symbolized by beatings

larger plantations

had more violence. whites thought that blacks could not be governed without the whip.

emotional damage

was greater than the physical damage experienced by slaves. being owned and sold emotionally corrupted them.

slave-master relationship

mainly distrust; some masters treated slaves 'good'

culture

gives slaves hope and links to time when they weren't enslaved

africa

was the MAIN culture influence among slave

slave religion

was mainly christianity.

slave christianity

was based on deliverance/justice while their masters religion was based on control.

slave religion

consisted mainly of personal and group salvation

music

left the biggest impact on american culture from the slaves. huge enterprise.

music

was vital to slave religion and contained songs about sadness and joy.

slave traders

mixed racism and business

slave traders

caused instability in slave families

unique names

were given to slave kids to create a sense of freedom

family

was the main source of support for slaves

slave resistance

slaves slacked off, broke equipment, stole food. tried to escape north.

slave resistance

was mostly subtle; violence would make conditions worse so slaves outsmarted owners instead.

denmark vesey

won lottery and bought freedom. combined bible teachings with revolutionary ideas to justify his plan to overthrow slavery.

nat turner

led the most successful slave rebellion

nat turner

kill 60 whites and led to his own death and the deaths of 200 blacks

nat turner

led to the passing of state laws making it illegal to educate blacks and stopped their religious freedom

virginia debate

was discussing ending slavery, but never happened.

virginia debate

was driven by fear and anti-black sentiments

social status

was determined by slaves owned

slave labor

devalued the labor of whites bc blacks did the same work for free.

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