these were the center of rural life and linked farmers with the rest of the world
people in these towns believed in communal values and community over competition
these were founded by anne lee. they were big on agriculture and handcrafts.
believed that the end of the world was near and that sin entered the world through sex.
had communities that were families, there were no individual families
this group was started/spread by joseph smith
was awaiting the second coming and thought only people of their kind could be saved. these people also believed in polygamy.
utopian community near boston that was inspired by transcendentalism
people here rejected materialism and favored rural communalism. they had good carpenter skills and were similar to the shakers.
the belief that the physical world is secondary to the spiritual realm. these people believed in higher powers, not God.
this was inspired by transcendentalist writers who began to see things differently because of nature.
had writings about moral truths. the themes were universal and very american.
ralph waldo emerson
was a big part in the transcendental movement. he preached indiviualism and self reliance.
american renaissance writers
focused on universal themes and humanity
california gold rush
during this, people abused the land and left it unsuitable for anything when they were done. most never found gold.
most of these people never found enough gold to pay off their expenses and made it so alot of food and agriculture was needed in california to support all of them, so the agriculture business booms as did the jobs in that field
not alot were in the gold rush, but those who were provided domestic services
forty niners resorted to this when they couldnt find gold, leading to the agricultural boom
people flooded cities too fast, ppl there couldn't prepare for them. much disease and polluted water.
the biggest cause for people going to cities
secretary of board of ed. made school yr 6 mo and supported free, state sponsored ed. thought education would end all problems/ bad things
caused by political, social, racial, and ethnic conflict erupting in the streets
led to formation of gangs, and later on, uniformed policemen
the main cause of these was competition for jobs; everyone was competing against eachother
alexis de tocqueville
said the US was a good place for WHITE males. visited all the states and connected mobility with equality; the more people could move around, the more chances they had to start anew
most wealth was..
this was concentrated in a small number of people. the top 10% of people held 3/4 of land.
lived under standards that would help them remain elite
lived in hoods w/o opportunity. women couldn't find jobs, so families couldn't be supported.
hit immigrants, free blacks, working poor, and single moms.
NYC five points
this neighborhood was mostly immigrant irish and freed blacks. very poor, one of the worst slums in the world.
urban middle class
lived in LUXURY (toliets, running water, large houses). depended on possessions to show class.
cult of domesticity
the belief that women should only be teachers or supporters of the husbands. this was the ideal role for women to partake in society.
came because there was a potato famine, and were eventually defeated by the english.
settled mostly in urban areas
were celtic not british
settled in rural areas
motivated mainly by economic competition. citizens feared that irish would take their jobs, so blamed them for all their problems.
hard working, self-reliant, smart.
came to america for political reasons, not economic.
celebrated on the sabbath by making sausages and drinking beer. this led to discrimination.
never migrated to america, america expanded its borders therefore making them residents of US. originally lived in texas.
viewed as 2nd class citizens.
free black population
grows greatly from 1830-1860 because of the underground railroad
free black population growth
causes more segregation and discrimination
held ideas of racial solidarity, self-help, and growing interest in africa. blacks fled to canada/af while europeans flooded into US.
slaveholder in debt who held the largest slave drive ever to get out of debt.
low population density
was in older plantation and frontier areas.
population in non-slaves states E of Mis.R.
was 3x higher
said slavery was "positive good" and "necessary evil"
slavery is an economic necessity/ profitable
blacks are created to be low in society
bible defends use of slaves
slavery is good because it is taking care of an inferior race
is ALL based on skin color
didn't have slaves, owned land and grew crops
valued self-reliance and freedom from other's control
wanted to get slaves so they could move up in society
yeoman folk culture
family, community, faith
of whites did NOT own slaves
landless whites of the antebellum south
owned only items, NO land. were irish immigrants who did dangerous work.
worked towards buying land to move up in society
had conditions worse than yeoman farmers but better than slaves.
could not own land or guns, and had to labor in fields with slaves
slave holding planters
top of society
of slaveholding planters had large plantations with lots of slaves, but most were yeoman planters w few slaves.
the believe that you are obligated to take care of someone who is incapable of taking care of themselves
not oppressors, 'guardians'
focused more on obligations than the profitable aspects of commercial agriculture.
women of the planter class
not allowed to challenge society's rues on sexual/racil relation
women of the planter class
oversee slaves cooking and watch children
women of the planter class
couldn't speak up about their husbands having sex with slaves
wives would stick their 'heads in the ground' as if not to notice their husbands having sex with slaves
got a little more than the bare necessities--enough to eat, but plain diets, bc masters wanted them to be able to do work. No shoes. One room cabins.
started work before dawn and worked until dusk. (gang labor system)
gang labor system
sun to sun. women/children work hard. get beat if you dont meet enough harvesting.
the task system
slaves were assigned measured amounts of work to be performed in a given amount of time
the task system
was more affective than gang labor system because it gave more freedom to slaves
was symbolized by beatings
had more violence. whites thought that blacks could not be governed without the whip.
was greater than the physical damage experienced by slaves. being owned and sold emotionally corrupted them.
mainly distrust; some masters treated slaves 'good'
gives slaves hope and links to time when they weren't enslaved
was the MAIN culture influence among slave
was mainly christianity.
was based on deliverance/justice while their masters religion was based on control.
consisted mainly of personal and group salvation
left the biggest impact on american culture from the slaves. huge enterprise.
was vital to slave religion and contained songs about sadness and joy.
mixed racism and business
caused instability in slave families
were given to slave kids to create a sense of freedom
was the main source of support for slaves
slaves slacked off, broke equipment, stole food. tried to escape north.
was mostly subtle; violence would make conditions worse so slaves outsmarted owners instead.
won lottery and bought freedom. combined bible teachings with revolutionary ideas to justify his plan to overthrow slavery.
led the most successful slave rebellion
kill 60 whites and led to his own death and the deaths of 200 blacks
led to the passing of state laws making it illegal to educate blacks and stopped their religious freedom
was discussing ending slavery, but never happened.
was driven by fear and anti-black sentiments
was determined by slaves owned
devalued the labor of whites bc blacks did the same work for free.