Health Assessment Test 1
|Subjective Data|| What the person says about himself or herself.|
- Includes Health History
|Objective Data|| What you observe through measurement, inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.|
- Includes Physical Examination
|Symptoms||Subjective sensation that the person FEELS from the disorder.|
|Sign||Objective abnormality that you as the examiner could detect on physical examination or diagnostic test.|
|Purpose of Health Assessment||to gather information from the patient, it facilitates problem-solving.|
|Types of Assessments|| - Initial|
|Initial Assessments||Assessment that is based on first look and used to review everything|
|Focused assessment||Assessment that is based on the reason for seeking care. It is focused on one point|
|Emergency Assessment||Assessment that may not get much information. It may only allowed a few seconds.|
|Ongoing Assessment||Assessment that is done when seeing a patient you have met with before.|
|Seven Attributes of a Symptom||- Location, Quality, Quantity or Severity, Timing, Setting, Factors that make it better/worse, and Associated manifestations|
|Stethoscope||Used to evaluate sounds created by the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal|
|Types of Stethoscopes|| - Acoustic|
|Parts of Acoustic Stethoscope|| - Bell: for low pitched sounds|
abnormal heart sounds: extra sounds,murmurs.
The deeper the cup, the more low pitched sound you hear.
- Diaphragm: For High Pitched sounds
Used for breath sound; heart and bowel sounds.
- If the Diaphragm does not fit, turn it over and use the bell
|Correct Position of Stethoscope||Place it between index and middle finger.|
|Penlight|| - used as transilluminator|
- useful for inspecting oral cavity, illuminating sinuses, and masses
|Ophthalmoscope|| - Used to inspect eye structures:|
retina, choroid, Optic Nerve Disk, Macula, Retinal Vessels
|Light Colors|| - Small White Light|
- Large white Light
- Green light
- Blue Light
- Slit Light
|Small White Light||Light used on Undilated pupils|
|Large White light||Light used on Dilated Pupils|
|Blue Light||Used to detect lesions when fluorine dye is used.|
|Green Light||Filters out red light|
|Grid||Used to locate structures and lesions|
|Slit of Light||used to determine shape of lesions|
|Tape measure||used to measure height, length, and width|
|Measurement in Infants|| Measurements in __________.|
- Head Circumference
- Length/ width
|Measurement in adults|| Measurements in ___________.|
|Tympanic Temperature|| senses infrared emission of the tympanic membrane(eardrum).|
It shares the same vascular supply that perfuses the hypothalamus.
- It is the most accurate measurement of core temperature.
- Place in ear canal and read 2 to 3 seconds later.
|Blood Pressure Cuff||Measures the force of blood pushing against the side of the vessel wall.|
|Systolic Pressure||maximum pressure felt on the artery during left ventricular contraction.|
|Diastolic Pressure||Elastic Recoil, or resting, pressure that the blood exerts constantly between each contraction.|
|Pulse pressure||Difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures and reflects the stroke volume.|
|Sphygmomanometer (BP Cuff)||Device that measures blood Pressure|
|Parts of BP Cuff|| - Aneroid Gauge: |
- Inflatable rubber bladder
|Aneroid Gauge||subject to drift: must be recalibrated at least once a year.|
|Inflatable rubber bladder||- width should equal 40% of arm circumference. Length should equal 80% of arm circumference|
|Inspection||concentrated watching. It is close, careful scrutiny, first of the individual as a whole, then of each part of the body|
|Palpation|| Assessment that applies the sense of touch to assess:|
- texture, temperature, moisture, organ location and size, as well as any swelling, vibrations, or pulsation, rigidity or spasticity, crepitation, presence of lumps or masses, and presence of tenderness or pain.
|Anterior Thoracic Landmarks|| - Suprasternal Notch|
- Sternal Angle
- Coastal Angle
|Suprasternal Notch||Hollow U-shaped depression just above the sternum, in between the clavicles.|
|Sternum|| Breastbone, has three parts|
- Xiphoid Process
|Sternal Angle|| aka "angle of Louis"|
- useful space to start counting ribs.
- Located near 2nd rib and 2nd intercoastal space.
- Upper border of atria of heart right underneath.
|Coastal Angle||- Formed by right and left costal margins form an angle where they meet at xiphoid process|
|Posterior Thoracic Landmarks|| - Vertebra Prominence (C7)|
- Spinous Processes
- Inferior Border of the Scapula
- Twelfth Rib
|Vertebra prominence|| - C7|
When neck is flexed, it is the bony prominence
|Reference Lines|| - Midsternal|
- Verterbral (Midspinal)
- Scapular Line
- Anterior Axillary
- Posterior Axillary