What the person says about himself or herself.
- Includes Health History
What you observe through measurement, inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.
- Includes Physical Examination
Subjective sensation that the person FEELS from the disorder.
Objective abnormality that you as the examiner could detect on physical examination or diagnostic test.
Purpose of Health Assessment
to gather information from the patient, it facilitates problem-solving.
Types of Assessments
Assessment that is based on first look and used to review everything
Assessment that is based on the reason for seeking care. It is focused on one point
Assessment that may not get much information. It may only allowed a few seconds.
Assessment that is done when seeing a patient you have met with before.
Seven Attributes of a Symptom
- Location, Quality, Quantity or Severity, Timing, Setting, Factors that make it better/worse, and Associated manifestations
Used to evaluate sounds created by the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal
Types of Stethoscopes
Parts of Acoustic Stethoscope
- Bell: for low pitched sounds
abnormal heart sounds: extra sounds,murmurs.
The deeper the cup, the more low pitched sound you hear.
- Diaphragm: For High Pitched sounds
Used for breath sound; heart and bowel sounds.
- If the Diaphragm does not fit, turn it over and use the bell
Correct Position of Stethoscope
Place it between index and middle finger.
- used as transilluminator
- useful for inspecting oral cavity, illuminating sinuses, and masses
- Used to inspect eye structures:
retina, choroid, Optic Nerve Disk, Macula, Retinal Vessels
- Small White Light
- Large white Light
- Green light
- Blue Light
- Slit Light
Small White Light
Light used on Undilated pupils
Large White light
Light used on Dilated Pupils
Used to detect lesions when fluorine dye is used.
Filters out red light
Used to locate structures and lesions
Slit of Light
used to determine shape of lesions
used to measure height, length, and width
Measurement in Infants
Measurements in __________.
- Head Circumference
- Length/ width
Measurement in adults
Measurements in ___________.
senses infrared emission of the tympanic membrane(eardrum).
It shares the same vascular supply that perfuses the hypothalamus.
- It is the most accurate measurement of core temperature.
- Place in ear canal and read 2 to 3 seconds later.
Blood Pressure Cuff
Measures the force of blood pushing against the side of the vessel wall.
maximum pressure felt on the artery during left ventricular contraction.
Elastic Recoil, or resting, pressure that the blood exerts constantly between each contraction.
Difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures and reflects the stroke volume.
Sphygmomanometer (BP Cuff)
Device that measures blood Pressure
Parts of BP Cuff
- Aneroid Gauge:
- Inflatable rubber bladder
subject to drift: must be recalibrated at least once a year.
Inflatable rubber bladder
- width should equal 40% of arm circumference. Length should equal 80% of arm circumference
concentrated watching. It is close, careful scrutiny, first of the individual as a whole, then of each part of the body
Assessment that applies the sense of touch to assess:
- texture, temperature, moisture, organ location and size, as well as any swelling, vibrations, or pulsation, rigidity or spasticity, crepitation, presence of lumps or masses, and presence of tenderness or pain.
Anterior Thoracic Landmarks
- Suprasternal Notch
- Sternal Angle
- Coastal Angle
Hollow U-shaped depression just above the sternum, in between the clavicles.
Breastbone, has three parts
- Xiphoid Process
aka "angle of Louis"
- useful space to start counting ribs.
- Located near 2nd rib and 2nd intercoastal space.
- Upper border of atria of heart right underneath.
- Formed by right and left costal margins form an angle where they meet at xiphoid process
Posterior Thoracic Landmarks
- Vertebra Prominence (C7)
- Spinous Processes
- Inferior Border of the Scapula
- Twelfth Rib
When neck is flexed, it is the bony prominence
- Verterbral (Midspinal)
- Scapular Line
- Anterior Axillary
- Posterior Axillary