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Our differences as humans include our, ____, ___ and ___ and ____ backgrounds.

personalities
interests
cultural
family

Our similarities as human beings include our common ____, our shared ____ architecture, our ability to use ____, and our ____ behaviors.

biological heritage
brain
language
social

A fundamental question in psychology deals with the extent to which we are shaped by our heredity, called our ____, and by external influences, called our ____.

nature
nurture

Researchers who specifically study genetic and environmental influences on behavior are called ____.

behavior geneticists

The term environment refers to every ____ influence.

nongenetic

The master plans for development are stored in the ___. In number, each person inherits ____ of these structures, ____ from each parent. Each is composed of a coiled chain of the molecule ____.

chromosomes
46
23
DNA

If chromosomes are the "chapters" of heredity, the "words" that make each of us a distinctive human being are called ____.

genes

The complete instructions for making an organism are referred to as the human ____.

genome

To study they power and limits of genetic influences on behavior, researchers use ____ and ____ studies.

twin
adoption

Twins who developed from a single egg are genetically ____. Twins who developed from different fertilized eggs are no more genetically alike than siblings and are called ____ twins.

identical
fraternal

In terms of the personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism, identical twins are _____ alike than are fraternal twins.

more

Twin pairs reported ____. However their similarities ____ be attributed to how they were treated.

being treated alike
could not

Through research on identical twins raised apart, psychologists are able to study the influence of the ____.

environment

Studies tend to show that the personalities of adopted children _____ closely resemble those of their adoptive parents. However, adoptions studies show that parenting ____ matter. For example, many adopted children score ___ than their biological parents on intelligence tests.

do not
does
higher

The term that refers to the inborn personality, especially the child's emotional excitability, is ____, which ___ endure over time.

temperament
does

From the first weeks of life, ___ babies are more ____, ____, and ____. In contrast, ___ babies are ____, ____, and ____ in feeding and sleeping. Faced with a new or strange situation, anxious infants become ____ physiologically aroused than less excitable infants.

difficult
irritable
intense
unpredictable
easy
cheerful
relaxed
predictable
more

The extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to differing genes is called ____. Heritable individual differences ____ heritable group differences.

heritability
do not necessarily imply

Genes are self-___; rather than acting as ___ that always lead to the same result, they ___ to the environmental context.

regulating
blueprints
react

For ____ phenomena, human differences are nearly always the result of both __ and ___ influences.

psychological
genetic
environmental

Throughout life, we are the product of the ___ of our ___ predispositions and our surrounding ____.

interaction
genetic
environment

Environments trigger activity in ____ and our genetically influenced traits evoke ____ in other people. This may explain why ____ twins recall greater variations in their early family life than do ____ twins.

genes
responses
fraternal
identical

The subfield of biology that seeks to identify some of the many genes that influence normal human traits is ___.

molecular genetics

Researchers who study natural selection and the adaptive nature of human behavior are called ___.

evolutionary psychologists

Researchers in this field focus mostly on what makes people so ____.

much alike

According to the principle of ___, traits that lead to increased reproduction and survival will be most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations.

natural selection

Genetic ____ are random errors in genetic replication that are the source of all genetic ___.

mutations
diversity

Genetic constraints on human behavior are generally ___ than those on animal behavior. The human species' ability to ___ and therefore to ___ in responding to different ___ contributes to our ____, defined as our ability to ___ and ___. Because of our genetic legacy, we love the tastes of sweets and ____, which we tend to ___, even though famine is unlikely in industrialized societies.

looser
learn
adapt
environments
fitness
survive
reproduce
fats
store

The characteristics by which people define male and female constitute ___. These characteristics are subject to ___ and ___ influences.

gender
biological
social

Compared to females, males are ___ likely to engage in casual, impulsive sex and they are ___ likely to initiate sexual activity. This is an example of a ____ difference.

more
more
gender

The ____ explanation of gender differences in attitudes toward sex is based on differences in the optimal strategy by which women and men pass on their ___. According to this view, males and females ___ selected for different patterns of sexuality.

evolutionary
genes
are

Cross-cultural research reveals that men judge women as more attractive if they have a ___ appearance, whereas women judge men who appear ____, ___, and ____ as more attractive.

youthful
mature
dominant
bold
affluent

Critics of the evolutionary explanation of the gender sexuality difference argue that it often works ____ to propose a ____ explanation.

backward
hindsight

Another critique is that gender differences in sexuality vary with ___ expectations. Gender differences in mate preferences are largest in cultures characterized by greater gender ____.

social
inequality

Evolutionary psychologists counter the criticisms by noting that the sexes, having faced similar adaptive problems, are more ___ that they are ___. They also note that evolutionary principles offer testable ____.

alike
different
predictions

Environmental influences begin during the period of ___ development.

prenatal

Rosenzweig and Krech discovered that rats raised from a young age in enriched environments had ___ brain cortexes than animals raised in isolation.

thicker

Experience shapes the brain by preserving activated ____ connections and allowing unused connections to ____. This process, called ____, results in a massive loss of unused connections by ____.

neural
degenerate
pruning
puberty

The idea that parents shape their children's futures come from ___ and ___.

Freudian psychiatry
psychology

Parents do influence some areas of their children's lives, such as their ____, ____, and ____.

political attitudes
personal manners
religious beliefs

In areas such as ____, the environment siblings share at home accounts for less than ____ percent of their differences.

personality
10

Experiences with ___ have a powerful effect on how children develop, partly as a result of a ____ effect by which kids seek our others with similar attitudes and interests.

peers
selction

The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions of a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next defines the group's ____.

culture

One landmark of human culture is the preservation of ___, which is derived from our mastery of ____, so that we can pass it on to future generations. Culture also enables an efficient division of ____.

innovation
language
labor

All cultural groups evolve their own rules for expected behavior, called ____.

norms

One such rule involves the buffer zone that people maintain around their bodies, called ____.

personal space

The speed at which culture changes is much ___ than the pace of evolutionary changes in the human ____.

faster
gene pool

Cultures based on ____ value personal ____ and individual ____. Examples of such cultures occur in ___, ____, ____, and ____.

individualism
independence (or control)
achievement
North America
Western Europe
Australia
New Zealand

In contrast, cultures based on ____ value ____, ____, and ____. Examples of such cultures occur in ____, ____, and ____.

collectivism
interdependence
tradition
harmony
Korea
Japan
China

Whereas people in ___ cultures value freedom, they suffer more ____, divorce, ___ and ____-related disease.

individualist
loneliness
homicide
stress

Whereas most Western parents place more emphasis on ____ in their children, many Asian and African parents focus on cultivating ____.

independence
emotional closeness

Children in collectivist cultures grow up with a strong sense of ____, a sense that what shames or honors the person also shames or honors the family.

family self

In general, differences between groups are ____ than person-to-person differences within groups.

smaller

Among your ____ chromosomes, ____ are unisex.

46
45

Compared with the average man, an average woman has more ____, less ___ and is a few inches ____. Women are more likely than men to suffer from ___, ____, and ____.

fat
muscle
shorter
depression
anxiety
eating disorders

Compare with women, men are more likely to commit ___ and to suffer ____. They are also more likely to be diagnosed with ___, ____, ____, and ____.

suicide
alcohol dependence
autism
color-blindness
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
antisocial personality disorder

Aggression is defined as ____ or ____ behavior that is ____ to hurt someone.

physical
verbal
intended

Throughout the world, men are more likely than women to engage in ___, ____, and ____.

hunting
fighting
warring

The aggression gender gap pertains to ____ rather than ____ aggression.

physical
verbal

Compared with women, men are perceived as being more ____, ____, and ____. As leaders, they tend to be more ____, while women are more ____.

dominant
forceful
independent
directive (or autocratic)
democratic

Compared with men, women are perceived as being more ___, ___, and ____.

deferential
nurturant
affiliative

These perceived differences occur ____.

throughout the world

According to Carol Gilligan, women are more concerned than men in making ____ with others.

connections

This difference is notable in how children ____, and it continues throughout the teen and adult years. Girls play in groups that are ___ and less ____ than boys' groups.

play
smaller
competitive

Because they are more ____, women are likely to use conversation to ____, while men are likely to use conversation to ____.

interdependent
explore relationships
communicate solutions

Women tend an befriend--for example, they turn to others for ____, especially when coping with ____.

support
stress

Gender differences in power, connectedness, and other traits peak in late ___ and early ___. By age 50, the differences have ____.

adolescence
adulthood
decreased

The 23rd pair of chromosomes determines the developing person's ____. The mother always contribures a(n) ____ chromosome. When the father contributes a(n) ____ chromosome, the testes begin producing the hormone ____. In about the ____, this hormones initiates the development of external male sex organs.

sex
X
Y
testosterone
seventh

Sex chromosomes control ___ that influence the brain's wiring. In adulthood, part of the ___ lobe, an area involved in ___ fluency, is thicker in women. Part of the brain's ____ cortex, a key area for ____ perception, is thicker in men.

hormones
frontal
verbal
parietal
space

Our expectations about the way men and women behave define our culture's ____.

gender roles

Gender roles ____ rigidly fixed by evolution, as evidenced by the fact that they vary across ____ and over ____. For instance, in ____ societies there tends to be minimal division of labor by sex; by contrast, in ____ societies, women remain close to home while men roam freely, herding cattle or sheep.

are not
cultures
time
nomadic
agricultural

Our individual sense of being male or female is called our ____. The degree to which we exhibit traditionally male or female traits and interests is called ____.

gender identity
gender typing

According to ____ theory, children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating others and being rewarded or punished. When their families discourage traditional gender typing, children ____ organize themselves into "boy worlds" and "girl worlds."

social learning
do

Children also learn from their ___ what it means to be male or female and adjust their behavior accordingly, thereby demonstrating that ____ is important in the formation of gender identity.

gender schemes
cognition

As brute strength becomes ____ relevant to power and status, gender roles are ____.

less
converging

We are the product of both ____ and ____, but we are also a system that is ____. we know this because a ____ approach to development shows that no single factor is all-powerful.

nature
nurture
open
biopsychosocial

The principle that we should prefer the simplest of competing explanations for a phenomenon is called ___.

Occam's razor

X chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both women and men

norm

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

fraternal

twins that develop from separate eggs

genes

the biochemical units of heredity

DNA

a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

identical

twins that develop from a single egg

Y chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in men

gender role

a set of expected behaviors for males and females

gender identity

one;s personal sense of being female or male

gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional gender role

environment

non genetic influences

testosterone

principle male sex hormone. During prenatal development, testosterone stimulates the development of the external male sex organs

social learning theory

people learn social behavior (such as gender roles) by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

natural selection

the evolutionary principle that traits lead to increased reproduction and survival are the most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations

Scientists who study physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life cycle are called ___.

developmental psychologists

One of the major issues in developmental psychology concerns the relative importance of genetic inheritance and experience in determining behavior; this is called the ____ issue.

nature/nurture

A second developmental issue concerns whether developmental changes are gradual or abrupt; this called the ____.

continuity/stages

A third controversial issue concerns the consistency of personality and whether development is characterized more by ____ over time or by change.

stability

Conception begins when a woman's ___ releases a mature ____.

ovary
egg

The few ___ from the man that reach the egg release digestive ____ that eat away the egg's protective covering. As soon as one sperm penetrates the egg, the egg's surface ___ all other sperm.

sperm
enzymes
blocks

The egg and sperm ____ fuse and become one.

nuclei

Fertilized human eggs are called ____. During the first week, the cells in this cluster begin to ___. The outer part of the fertilized egg attaches to the ____ wall.

zygotes
differentiate
uterine

From about 2 until 8 weeks of age the developing human, formed from the inner cells of the fertilized egg, is called a(n) ____. During the final stage of prenatal development, the developing human is called a(n) ____.

embryo
fetus

Formed as the zygote attached to the uterus, the ____ transfers ____ and ____ from mother to fetus. Along with nutrients, a range of harmful substances known as ____ can pass through the placenta.

placenta
nutrients
oxygen
teratogens

Moderate consumption of alcohol during pregnancy ___ the fetal brain. If a mother drinks heavily, her baby is at risk for the birth defects and mental retardation that accompany ____.

can affect
fetal alcohol syndrome

When an infant's cheek is touched, it will vigorously ___ for a nipple. Other infant reflexes include ___, ____, ____, and ____.

root
sucking
swallowing
tonguing
breathing

American psychologist ____ believed that the newborn experiences a "blooming, buzzing confusion." This belief is ____.

William James
incorrect

To study infants' thinking, developmental researchers have focused on a simple form of learning called ____, which involves a ____ in responding with repeated stimulation. Using the ____ procedure, researchers have found that infants prefer sights, such as faces, that facilitate ___ responsiveness.

habituation
decrease
novelty-preference
social

The developing brain ___ produces neurons. At birth, the human nervous system ___ fully mature.

over
is not

Between 3 and 6 years of age, the brain is developing most rapidly in the ___ lobes, which enable ___. The last areas of the brain to develop are the ____ linked with ____, ____ and ____.

frontal
rational planning
association areas
thinking
memory
language

After puberty, a process of ___ shuts down some neural connections and strengthens others.

pruning

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior are called ____.

maturation

Infants pass the milestones of ___ development at different rates, but the basic ____ of stages is fixed. Infants sit before they ___ and walk before they ____.

motor
sequence
crawl
run

Genes play a ___ role in motor development.

major

Until the necessary muscular and neural maturation is complete, including the rapid development of the brain's ____, experience has a ___ effect on learning to walk, for example.

cerebellum
small

Our earliest memories generally do not occur before age ____.
This phenomenon has been called ____.

3
infantile amnesia

Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with ___, ___, ___ and ____.

thinking
knowing
remembering
communicating

The first researcher to show that the thought processes of adults and children are very different was ____.

Piaget

To organize and interpret his or her experiences, the developing child constructs cognitive concepts called ____.

schemas

The interpretation of new experiences in terms of existing ideas is called ____. The adaption of existing ideas to fit new experience is called ____.

assimilation
accommodation

In Piaget's first stage of development, the ____ stage, children experience the world through their motor and sensory interactions with objects. THis stage occurs between infancy and nearly age ____.

sensorimotor
2

The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are removed from view is called ____. This awareness begins to develop at about ___ month of age.

object permanence
8

Developmental researchers have found that Piaget and his followers ___ young children's competence. For instance, babies have an intuitive grasp of simple laws of ___, as Sarah Shuwairi showed, and an understanding of ____, as Karen Wynn demonstrated.

underestimated
physics
numbers

According to Piaget, during the preschool years and up to age ___, children are in the ___ stage.

6 or 7
preoperational

The principle that the quantity of a substance remains the same even when the shape of its container changes is called ___. Piaget believed that preschoolers ___ developed this concept.

conservation
have not

Preschoolers have difficulty in perceiving things from another person's point of view. This inability is called ____.

egocentrism

The child's growing ability to take another's perspective is evidence that the child is acquiring a ____. Between about 3 1/2 and 4 1/2 children come to realize that other may hold ____.

theory of mind
false beliefs

The disorder characterized by deficient ___ and ___ interaction and an impaired ____ is ____. This disorder is related to malfunction of brain areas that allow us to take another's ___. The "high functioning" form of this disorder is called ____.

communication
social
theory of mind
autism
viewpoint
Asperger syndrome

Baron-Cohen's theory proposes that autism represents an "extreme ____ brain." According to this theory, girls tend to be ___, who are better than boys at reading facial expressions and gestures. Boys tend to be ____, who understand things in terms of rules or laws.

male
empathizers
systemizers

In contrast to Piaget's findings to perform mental ____, to think ____, and to take another's ___ begin to show up early and continue to develop ____.

operations
symbolically
perspective
gradually

Russian psychologist ____ noted that by age ___ children stop thinking aloud and instead rely on ____. Talking to themselves helps children control their ___ and ___ and master new skills.

Lev Vygotsky
7
inner speech
behavior
emotions

Piaget believed that children acquire the mental abilities needed to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation by about ___ years of age. At this time, they enter the ____ stage.

6 or 7
concrete operational

In Piaget's final stage, the ____ stage, reasoning expands from the purely conccrete to encompass ___ thinking. Piaget believed most children begin to enter this stage by age ___.

formal operational
abstract
12

Complementing Piaget's emphasis on interaction with the ____ environment is Vygotsky's emphasis on interaction with the ____ environment. When parents mentor children and give them new words, they provide, according to Vygotsky, a ____ upon which the child can build higher-level thinking.

physical
social
scaffold

Soon after ____ emerges and children become mobile, a new fear called, called ____ emerges.
The fear emerges at about age ___.

object permanence
stranger anxiety
8 months

The development of a strong emotional bond between infant and parent is called ____.

attachment

The Harlow's studies of monkeys have shown that mother-infant attachment does not depend on the mother providing nourishment as much as it does on her providing the comfort of ____. Another key to attachment is ____.

body contact
familiarity

Human attachment involves one person providing another with a ____ when distressed and a ____ from which to explore.

safe haven
secure base

In some animals, attachment will occur only during a restricted time called a ____. Konrad Lorenz discovered that young birds would follow almost any object if it were the first moving thing they observed. This phenomenon is called ____.

critical period
imprinting

Human infants ____ have a precise critical period for becoming attached. However because of ____ they attach to what they know.

do not
mere exposure

Placed in a research setting called the ____, children show one of two patterns of ____ attachment or ____ attachment.

strange situation
secure
insecure

A father's love and acceptance for his children are ____ to a mother's love in predicting their children's health and well-being.

comparable to

Separation anxiety peaks in infants around ___ months, then ____. This is true of children ____.

13
gradually declines
throughout the world

According to Erikson, securely attached infants approach life with a sense of ____.

basic trust

Most researchers now believe that early attachments ____ form the basis of adult attachments. Attachment style is also associated with ____: Securely attached people exhibit greater drive to achieve.

do
motivation

The Harlows found that when monkeys reared in social isolation were placed with other monkeys, they reacted with either fear or ___.

aggression

Most abused children ___ later become abusive parents.

do not

Although most children who grow up under adversity are ___ and become normal adults, early abuse and excessive exposure to ____ may alter the development of the brain chemical ____.

resilient
stress hormones
serotonin

When placed in a more positive and stable environment, most infants ____ from disruptions in attachment.

recover

Experts agree that child care ____ per se constitute a risk factor in children's development. High-quality child care consists of warm, supportive interactions with adults in an environment that is ___, ___, and ___. More important than time spent in day care in influencing a child's development are ____.

does not
safe
healthy
stimulating
the mother's sensitivity, the child's temperament, and the family's economic and educational level

The primary social achievement of childhood is the development of a ____ which occurs in most children by age ____.

self concept
12

A child's self image generally becomes stable between the ages of ____ and ____, when children begin to describe themselves in terms of gender, group memberships, and psychological ____.

8
10
traits

Parents who impose rules and expect obedience are exhibiting a(n) ____ style of parenting.

authoritarian

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