Our differences as humans include our, ____, ___ and ___ and ____ backgrounds.
Our similarities as human beings include our common ____, our shared ____ architecture, our ability to use ____, and our ____ behaviors.
A fundamental question in psychology deals with the extent to which we are shaped by our heredity, called our ____, and by external influences, called our ____.
Researchers who specifically study genetic and environmental influences on behavior are called ____.
The term environment refers to every ____ influence.
The master plans for development are stored in the ___. In number, each person inherits ____ of these structures, ____ from each parent. Each is composed of a coiled chain of the molecule ____.
If chromosomes are the "chapters" of heredity, the "words" that make each of us a distinctive human being are called ____.
The complete instructions for making an organism are referred to as the human ____.
To study they power and limits of genetic influences on behavior, researchers use ____ and ____ studies.
Twins who developed from a single egg are genetically ____. Twins who developed from different fertilized eggs are no more genetically alike than siblings and are called ____ twins.
In terms of the personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism, identical twins are _____ alike than are fraternal twins.
Twin pairs reported ____. However their similarities ____ be attributed to how they were treated.
being treated alike
Through research on identical twins raised apart, psychologists are able to study the influence of the ____.
Studies tend to show that the personalities of adopted children _____ closely resemble those of their adoptive parents. However, adoptions studies show that parenting ____ matter. For example, many adopted children score ___ than their biological parents on intelligence tests.
The term that refers to the inborn personality, especially the child's emotional excitability, is ____, which ___ endure over time.
From the first weeks of life, ___ babies are more ____, ____, and ____. In contrast, ___ babies are ____, ____, and ____ in feeding and sleeping. Faced with a new or strange situation, anxious infants become ____ physiologically aroused than less excitable infants.
The extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to differing genes is called ____. Heritable individual differences ____ heritable group differences.
do not necessarily imply
Genes are self-___; rather than acting as ___ that always lead to the same result, they ___ to the environmental context.
For ____ phenomena, human differences are nearly always the result of both __ and ___ influences.
Throughout life, we are the product of the ___ of our ___ predispositions and our surrounding ____.
Environments trigger activity in ____ and our genetically influenced traits evoke ____ in other people. This may explain why ____ twins recall greater variations in their early family life than do ____ twins.
The subfield of biology that seeks to identify some of the many genes that influence normal human traits is ___.
Researchers who study natural selection and the adaptive nature of human behavior are called ___.
Researchers in this field focus mostly on what makes people so ____.
According to the principle of ___, traits that lead to increased reproduction and survival will be most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations.
Genetic ____ are random errors in genetic replication that are the source of all genetic ___.
Genetic constraints on human behavior are generally ___ than those on animal behavior. The human species' ability to ___ and therefore to ___ in responding to different ___ contributes to our ____, defined as our ability to ___ and ___. Because of our genetic legacy, we love the tastes of sweets and ____, which we tend to ___, even though famine is unlikely in industrialized societies.
The characteristics by which people define male and female constitute ___. These characteristics are subject to ___ and ___ influences.
Compared to females, males are ___ likely to engage in casual, impulsive sex and they are ___ likely to initiate sexual activity. This is an example of a ____ difference.
The ____ explanation of gender differences in attitudes toward sex is based on differences in the optimal strategy by which women and men pass on their ___. According to this view, males and females ___ selected for different patterns of sexuality.
Cross-cultural research reveals that men judge women as more attractive if they have a ___ appearance, whereas women judge men who appear ____, ___, and ____ as more attractive.
Critics of the evolutionary explanation of the gender sexuality difference argue that it often works ____ to propose a ____ explanation.
Another critique is that gender differences in sexuality vary with ___ expectations. Gender differences in mate preferences are largest in cultures characterized by greater gender ____.
Evolutionary psychologists counter the criticisms by noting that the sexes, having faced similar adaptive problems, are more ___ that they are ___. They also note that evolutionary principles offer testable ____.
Environmental influences begin during the period of ___ development.
Rosenzweig and Krech discovered that rats raised from a young age in enriched environments had ___ brain cortexes than animals raised in isolation.
Experience shapes the brain by preserving activated ____ connections and allowing unused connections to ____. This process, called ____, results in a massive loss of unused connections by ____.
The idea that parents shape their children's futures come from ___ and ___.
Parents do influence some areas of their children's lives, such as their ____, ____, and ____.
In areas such as ____, the environment siblings share at home accounts for less than ____ percent of their differences.
Experiences with ___ have a powerful effect on how children develop, partly as a result of a ____ effect by which kids seek our others with similar attitudes and interests.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions of a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next defines the group's ____.
One landmark of human culture is the preservation of ___, which is derived from our mastery of ____, so that we can pass it on to future generations. Culture also enables an efficient division of ____.
All cultural groups evolve their own rules for expected behavior, called ____.
One such rule involves the buffer zone that people maintain around their bodies, called ____.
The speed at which culture changes is much ___ than the pace of evolutionary changes in the human ____.
Cultures based on ____ value personal ____ and individual ____. Examples of such cultures occur in ___, ____, ____, and ____.
independence (or control)
In contrast, cultures based on ____ value ____, ____, and ____. Examples of such cultures occur in ____, ____, and ____.
Whereas people in ___ cultures value freedom, they suffer more ____, divorce, ___ and ____-related disease.
Whereas most Western parents place more emphasis on ____ in their children, many Asian and African parents focus on cultivating ____.
Children in collectivist cultures grow up with a strong sense of ____, a sense that what shames or honors the person also shames or honors the family.
In general, differences between groups are ____ than person-to-person differences within groups.
Among your ____ chromosomes, ____ are unisex.
Compared with the average man, an average woman has more ____, less ___ and is a few inches ____. Women are more likely than men to suffer from ___, ____, and ____.
Compare with women, men are more likely to commit ___ and to suffer ____. They are also more likely to be diagnosed with ___, ____, ____, and ____.
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
antisocial personality disorder
Aggression is defined as ____ or ____ behavior that is ____ to hurt someone.
Throughout the world, men are more likely than women to engage in ___, ____, and ____.
The aggression gender gap pertains to ____ rather than ____ aggression.
Compared with women, men are perceived as being more ____, ____, and ____. As leaders, they tend to be more ____, while women are more ____.
directive (or autocratic)
Compared with men, women are perceived as being more ___, ___, and ____.
These perceived differences occur ____.
throughout the world
According to Carol Gilligan, women are more concerned than men in making ____ with others.
This difference is notable in how children ____, and it continues throughout the teen and adult years. Girls play in groups that are ___ and less ____ than boys' groups.
Because they are more ____, women are likely to use conversation to ____, while men are likely to use conversation to ____.
Women tend an befriend--for example, they turn to others for ____, especially when coping with ____.
Gender differences in power, connectedness, and other traits peak in late ___ and early ___. By age 50, the differences have ____.
The 23rd pair of chromosomes determines the developing person's ____. The mother always contribures a(n) ____ chromosome. When the father contributes a(n) ____ chromosome, the testes begin producing the hormone ____. In about the ____, this hormones initiates the development of external male sex organs.
Sex chromosomes control ___ that influence the brain's wiring. In adulthood, part of the ___ lobe, an area involved in ___ fluency, is thicker in women. Part of the brain's ____ cortex, a key area for ____ perception, is thicker in men.
Our expectations about the way men and women behave define our culture's ____.
Gender roles ____ rigidly fixed by evolution, as evidenced by the fact that they vary across ____ and over ____. For instance, in ____ societies there tends to be minimal division of labor by sex; by contrast, in ____ societies, women remain close to home while men roam freely, herding cattle or sheep.
Our individual sense of being male or female is called our ____. The degree to which we exhibit traditionally male or female traits and interests is called ____.
According to ____ theory, children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating others and being rewarded or punished. When their families discourage traditional gender typing, children ____ organize themselves into "boy worlds" and "girl worlds."
Children also learn from their ___ what it means to be male or female and adjust their behavior accordingly, thereby demonstrating that ____ is important in the formation of gender identity.
As brute strength becomes ____ relevant to power and status, gender roles are ____.
We are the product of both ____ and ____, but we are also a system that is ____. we know this because a ____ approach to development shows that no single factor is all-powerful.
The principle that we should prefer the simplest of competing explanations for a phenomenon is called ___.
the sex chromosome found in both women and men
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
twins that develop from separate eggs
the biochemical units of heredity
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
twins that develop from a single egg
the sex chromosome found only in men
a set of expected behaviors for males and females
one;s personal sense of being female or male
the acquisition of a traditional gender role
non genetic influences
principle male sex hormone. During prenatal development, testosterone stimulates the development of the external male sex organs
social learning theory
people learn social behavior (such as gender roles) by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
the evolutionary principle that traits lead to increased reproduction and survival are the most likely to be passed on to succeeding generations
Scientists who study physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life cycle are called ___.
One of the major issues in developmental psychology concerns the relative importance of genetic inheritance and experience in determining behavior; this is called the ____ issue.
A second developmental issue concerns whether developmental changes are gradual or abrupt; this called the ____.
A third controversial issue concerns the consistency of personality and whether development is characterized more by ____ over time or by change.
Conception begins when a woman's ___ releases a mature ____.
The few ___ from the man that reach the egg release digestive ____ that eat away the egg's protective covering. As soon as one sperm penetrates the egg, the egg's surface ___ all other sperm.
The egg and sperm ____ fuse and become one.
Fertilized human eggs are called ____. During the first week, the cells in this cluster begin to ___. The outer part of the fertilized egg attaches to the ____ wall.
From about 2 until 8 weeks of age the developing human, formed from the inner cells of the fertilized egg, is called a(n) ____. During the final stage of prenatal development, the developing human is called a(n) ____.
Formed as the zygote attached to the uterus, the ____ transfers ____ and ____ from mother to fetus. Along with nutrients, a range of harmful substances known as ____ can pass through the placenta.
Moderate consumption of alcohol during pregnancy ___ the fetal brain. If a mother drinks heavily, her baby is at risk for the birth defects and mental retardation that accompany ____.
fetal alcohol syndrome
When an infant's cheek is touched, it will vigorously ___ for a nipple. Other infant reflexes include ___, ____, ____, and ____.
American psychologist ____ believed that the newborn experiences a "blooming, buzzing confusion." This belief is ____.
To study infants' thinking, developmental researchers have focused on a simple form of learning called ____, which involves a ____ in responding with repeated stimulation. Using the ____ procedure, researchers have found that infants prefer sights, such as faces, that facilitate ___ responsiveness.
The developing brain ___ produces neurons. At birth, the human nervous system ___ fully mature.
Between 3 and 6 years of age, the brain is developing most rapidly in the ___ lobes, which enable ___. The last areas of the brain to develop are the ____ linked with ____, ____ and ____.
After puberty, a process of ___ shuts down some neural connections and strengthens others.
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior are called ____.
Infants pass the milestones of ___ development at different rates, but the basic ____ of stages is fixed. Infants sit before they ___ and walk before they ____.
Genes play a ___ role in motor development.
Until the necessary muscular and neural maturation is complete, including the rapid development of the brain's ____, experience has a ___ effect on learning to walk, for example.
Our earliest memories generally do not occur before age ____.
This phenomenon has been called ____.
Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with ___, ___, ___ and ____.
The first researcher to show that the thought processes of adults and children are very different was ____.
To organize and interpret his or her experiences, the developing child constructs cognitive concepts called ____.
The interpretation of new experiences in terms of existing ideas is called ____. The adaption of existing ideas to fit new experience is called ____.
In Piaget's first stage of development, the ____ stage, children experience the world through their motor and sensory interactions with objects. THis stage occurs between infancy and nearly age ____.
The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are removed from view is called ____. This awareness begins to develop at about ___ month of age.
Developmental researchers have found that Piaget and his followers ___ young children's competence. For instance, babies have an intuitive grasp of simple laws of ___, as Sarah Shuwairi showed, and an understanding of ____, as Karen Wynn demonstrated.
According to Piaget, during the preschool years and up to age ___, children are in the ___ stage.
6 or 7
The principle that the quantity of a substance remains the same even when the shape of its container changes is called ___. Piaget believed that preschoolers ___ developed this concept.
Preschoolers have difficulty in perceiving things from another person's point of view. This inability is called ____.
The child's growing ability to take another's perspective is evidence that the child is acquiring a ____. Between about 3 1/2 and 4 1/2 children come to realize that other may hold ____.
theory of mind
The disorder characterized by deficient ___ and ___ interaction and an impaired ____ is ____. This disorder is related to malfunction of brain areas that allow us to take another's ___. The "high functioning" form of this disorder is called ____.
theory of mind
Baron-Cohen's theory proposes that autism represents an "extreme ____ brain." According to this theory, girls tend to be ___, who are better than boys at reading facial expressions and gestures. Boys tend to be ____, who understand things in terms of rules or laws.
In contrast to Piaget's findings to perform mental ____, to think ____, and to take another's ___ begin to show up early and continue to develop ____.
Russian psychologist ____ noted that by age ___ children stop thinking aloud and instead rely on ____. Talking to themselves helps children control their ___ and ___ and master new skills.
Piaget believed that children acquire the mental abilities needed to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation by about ___ years of age. At this time, they enter the ____ stage.
6 or 7
In Piaget's final stage, the ____ stage, reasoning expands from the purely conccrete to encompass ___ thinking. Piaget believed most children begin to enter this stage by age ___.
Complementing Piaget's emphasis on interaction with the ____ environment is Vygotsky's emphasis on interaction with the ____ environment. When parents mentor children and give them new words, they provide, according to Vygotsky, a ____ upon which the child can build higher-level thinking.
Soon after ____ emerges and children become mobile, a new fear called, called ____ emerges.
The fear emerges at about age ___.
The development of a strong emotional bond between infant and parent is called ____.
The Harlow's studies of monkeys have shown that mother-infant attachment does not depend on the mother providing nourishment as much as it does on her providing the comfort of ____. Another key to attachment is ____.
Human attachment involves one person providing another with a ____ when distressed and a ____ from which to explore.
In some animals, attachment will occur only during a restricted time called a ____. Konrad Lorenz discovered that young birds would follow almost any object if it were the first moving thing they observed. This phenomenon is called ____.
Human infants ____ have a precise critical period for becoming attached. However because of ____ they attach to what they know.
Placed in a research setting called the ____, children show one of two patterns of ____ attachment or ____ attachment.
A father's love and acceptance for his children are ____ to a mother's love in predicting their children's health and well-being.
Separation anxiety peaks in infants around ___ months, then ____. This is true of children ____.
throughout the world
According to Erikson, securely attached infants approach life with a sense of ____.
Most researchers now believe that early attachments ____ form the basis of adult attachments. Attachment style is also associated with ____: Securely attached people exhibit greater drive to achieve.
The Harlows found that when monkeys reared in social isolation were placed with other monkeys, they reacted with either fear or ___.
Most abused children ___ later become abusive parents.
Although most children who grow up under adversity are ___ and become normal adults, early abuse and excessive exposure to ____ may alter the development of the brain chemical ____.
When placed in a more positive and stable environment, most infants ____ from disruptions in attachment.
Experts agree that child care ____ per se constitute a risk factor in children's development. High-quality child care consists of warm, supportive interactions with adults in an environment that is ___, ___, and ___. More important than time spent in day care in influencing a child's development are ____.
the mother's sensitivity, the child's temperament, and the family's economic and educational level
The primary social achievement of childhood is the development of a ____ which occurs in most children by age ____.
A child's self image generally becomes stable between the ages of ____ and ____, when children begin to describe themselves in terms of gender, group memberships, and psychological ____.
Parents who impose rules and expect obedience are exhibiting a(n) ____ style of parenting.
Parents who make few demands of their children and tend to submit to their children's desires are identified as ____ parents.
Setting and enforcing standards after discussion with their children is the approach taken by ____ parents.
Studies have shown that children with highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have ___ parents.
Adolescence is defined as the transition period between ____ and ____.
The "storm and stress" view of adolescence is credited to ___, one of the first American psychologists to describe adolescence.
G Stanley Hall
Adolescence begins with the time of developing sexual maturity known as ____. A 2 year period of rapid physical development begins in girls about the age of ____ and in boys about the age of ____. This growth spurt is marked by the development of the reproductive organs and external genitalia, or ____ characteristics, as well as by the development of traits such as pubic hair and enlarged breasts in females and facial hair in males. These non reproductive traits are known as ____ characteristics.
The first menstrual period is called ____. In boys, the first ejaculation is called ____.
The ____ of pubertal changes is more predictable than their ____.
Boys who mature ____ tend to be more popular, self-assured, and independent; they also are at increased risk for ____. For girls, ____ maturation can be stressful, especially when their bodies are out of sync with their ____. This reminds us that ___ and ___ interact.
alcohol use, delinquency, and premature sexual activity
The adolescent brain undergoes a selective ___ of unused neurons and connections. Also, teens' occasional impulsiveness and risky behaviors ma be due, in part, to the fact that development in the brain's ___ lags behind that of the ____.
Adolescents' developing cognitive ability enables them to think about what is ____ possible and ____ that with imperfect reality.
During the early teen years, reasoning is often ____, as adolescents often feel their experiences are unique.
Piaget's final stage of cognitive development is the stage of ____. Adolescent in this stage are capable of thinking logically about ____ as well as concrete propositions. This enables them to detect ____ in others' reasoning and to spot hypocrisy.
The theorist who proposed that moral thought progresses through stages is ____. These stages are divided into 3 basic levels: ____, ____, and ____.
In the pre conventional stages of morality, characteristic of children, the emphasis is on obeying rules in order to avoid ____ or gain ____.
Conventional morality usually emerges by early ____. The emphasis is on gaining social ____ or upholding the social ____.
Individuals who base moral judgements on their own perceptions of basic ethical principles are said by Kohlberg to employ ____ morality.
The idea that moral feelings precede moral reasoning is expressed in the ___ explanation of morality. Research studies using ____ support the idea that moral judgment involves more than merely thinking; it is also gut-level feeling.
Morality involves doing the right thing, and what we do depends on ___ influences. Today's ____ focus on moral issues and doing the right thing. They teach children ____ for others' feelings.
character education programs
Children who learn to delay ____ become more socially responsible, often engaging in responsible action through ____ learning. They also become more___ successful and more productive.
Moral ideas grow ___ when acted on.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
Competence vs. inferiority
Identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Integrity vs. despair
To refine their sense of identity, adolescents in individualistic cultures experiment with different _____ in different situations. The result may be role ____, which is resolved by forming a self definition or _____.
Some adolescents forge their identity early, simply by ___ their parents' values and expectations. Other may assume an identity ___ that of their parents.
During the early to mid teen years, self esteem generally _____. During the late teens and twenties, self esteem generally ____ and identity becomes more ____.
Erikson saw the formation of identity as a prerequisite for the development of ____ in young adulthood.
Adolescence is typically a time of increasing influence from one's ____ and decreasing influence from ____.
Most adolescents report that they ____ get along with their parents. They see their parents as having the most influence in shaping their ____, for example.
When rejected adolescents withdraw, they are vulnerable to ____, low ____, and ____.
As a result of increased ____ and weakened _____ bonds, sexual maturity is beginning ___ than in the past.
Because the time from 18 to the mid twenties is increasingly a not-yet-settled phase of life, some psychologists refer to this period as a time of ____.
During adulthood, age ____ a very good predictor of people's traits.
The mid-twenties are the peak years for ____, ____, ____, and ____. Because they mature earlier, ____ also peak earlier.
During early and middle adulthood, physical vigor has less to do with ____ than with a person's ____ and ____ habits.
The cessation of the menstrual cycle, known as ____, occurs within a few years of ____. This biological change results from lowered levels of the hormone ____. A woman's experience during this time depends largely on her ____ and ____.
Although men experience no equivalent to menopause, they do experience a more gradual decline in ____ count, level of the hormone ____, and speed of erection and ejaculation during later life.
Worldwide, life expectancy at birth increased from 49 years in 1950 to ____ years and beyond in 2004 in some developed countries. Women outlive men by nearly ____ years worldwide and by ___ years in Canada, the United States, and Australia. With age, the tips of our chromosomes, called ____, shorten.
5 to 6
According to one evolutionary theory, our bodies age and wear out because once we've completed our ____ and nurturing task, there are no ___ pressures against genes that cause degeneration in later life.
The human spirit also affects life expectancy. The death rate increases when people reach their birthdays, a finding referred to as the ____ phenomenon.
With age, the eye's pupil ____ and its lens becomes ____ transparent. As a result, the amount of light that reaches the retina is ____.
Although older adults are ___ susceptible to life-threatening ailments, they suffer from short-term ailments such as flu ____ often than younger adults.
Aging ____ neural processing and causes a gradual loss of ____.
Physical exercise stimulates ____ development and ____ connections, thanks perhaps to increased ___ and nutrient flow.
The mental erosion that results from progressive damage to the brain is called ____.
The irreversible disorder that causes progressive brain deterioration is ____ disease. This disease has been linked to a deterioration of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter ____.
Studies of developmental changes in learning and memory show that during adulthood there is a decline in the ability to ____ new information but not in the ability to ____ such information. One factor that influences memory in the elderly is the ____ of material.
Adults' ___ memory remains strong when events help trigger recall.
Cognitive abilities among 70 year olds are ____ varied than among 20 year olds.
A research study in which people of various ages are compared with one another is called a ___ study. THis kind of study found evidence of intellectual ____ during adulthood.
A research study in which the same people are retested over a period of years is called a ____ study. This kind of study found evidence of intellectual ___ during adulthood.
The accumulation of stored information that comes with education and experience is called ____ intelligence, which tends to ___ with age.
The ability to reason abstractly is referred to as ___ intelligence, which tends to ____ with age.
Contrary to popular opinion, job and marital dissatisfaction do not surge during the forties thus suggesting that a midlife ____ need not occur.
The term used to refer to the culturally preferred timing for leaving home, getting a job, marrying, and so on is the ____. Today the timing of such life events is becoming ____ predictable. More important than age are ____ and chance encounters.
According to Erikson, the 2 basic tasks of adulthood are achieving ____ and ____. According to Freud, the healthy adult is one who can ___ and ___.
Human societies have nearly always included a relatively ___ bond. Marriage bonds are usually lasting when couples marry after age ___ and are ____.
Marriages today are ____ as likely to end in divorce as they were in the 1960's. Couples who live together before marrying have a ____ divorce rate than those who do not.
Marriage is a predictor of ___, ____, ____, and ____. Lesbian couples report ___ well-being than those who are alone.
As children begin to absorb time and energy, satisfaction with the marriage itself ____. This is particularly true among ___ women, who shoulder most of the burden.
For most couples, the children's leaving home produces a(n) ____ in marital satisfaction.
During the first 2 years of college or university, most students ____ predict their later careers. Most ____ shift from their original major.
From early adulthood to midlife, people typically experience a strengthening sense of ____, ____, and ____.
According to studies older people ____ report as much happiness and satisfaction with life as younger people do. In addition their feelings ____ mellow.
As we age, the brain area called the ____ shows ____ activity in response to negative events.
More and more people flourish into later life, thanks to ____ influences.
Grief over a loved one's death is especially severe when it comes _____.
suddenly and before its expected time on the social clock
Reactions to a loved one's death ____ vary according to cultural norms. Those who express the strongest grief immediately ____ purge their grief more quickly.
Terminally ill and bereaved people ____ go though predictable stages.
According to Erikson, the final task of adulthood is to achieve a sense of ____.
Stage theories that have been considered include the theory of cognitive development proposed by ____, the theory of moral development proposed by _____, and the theory of psychosocial development proposed by____.
Although research casts doubt on the idea that life proceeds through age-linked ____, there are spurts of ___ growth during childhood and puberty that correspond roughly to the stages proposed by ____.
The first two years of life ____ provide a good basis for predicting a person's eventual traits.
Research on the consistency of personality shows that some traits, such as those related to ____, are more stable than others, such as social attitudes.
the fertilized egg, that is, the cluster of cells formed during conception by the union of sperm and egg
the developing prenatal organism from about 2 weeks through 2 months after conception; formed from the inner cells of the zygote
the developing prenatal human from 9 weeks after conception to birth
(literally, poisons) are any chemicals and viruses that cross the mother's placenta and can harm the developing embryo or fetus
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
refers to the physical and cognitive abnormalities that heavy drinking by a pregnant woman may cause in the developing child
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus that is repeatedly present
a simple form of learning used to study infant cognition
the biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience or other environmental factors
refers to all the mental processes associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development they are mental concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information
lasts from birth to nearly age 2. During this stage infants gain knowledge of the world through thier senses and their motor activities
develops during the sensorimotor stage, is the awareness that things do not cease to exist when not perceived
pre operational stage
lasts from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age. During this stage, language development is rapid, but the child is unable to understand the mental operations of concrete logic
the principle that properties such as number, volume, and mass remain constant despite changes in the forms of objects; it is acquired during the concrete operational stage
refers to the difficulty that pre operational children have in considering another's viewpoint. "Self-centered"
theory of mind
our ideas about our own and others' thoughts feelings and perceptions and the behaviors these might predict
a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy a concept that infants form if their need needs are met by responsive caregiving
our understanding and evaluation of who we are
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that enable reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics (female breasts, male voice quality, and body hair)
one's sense of self, primary task of adolescence
refers to person's self-concept as defined by the groups to which he or she belongs
the same people are tested and retested over a period of years
refers to those aspects of intellectual ability such as vocabulary and general knowledge, that reflect accumulated learning, tends to increase with age
refers to a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly, tends to decline with age
The perceptual disorder in which a person has lost the ability to recognize familiar faces is ____.
The process by which we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it as neural signals is ____. The process by which sensations are organized and interpreted is ____.
Sensory analysis, which starts at the entry level and works up, is called ____. Perceptual analysis, which works from our experience and expectations is called ____.
bottom up processing
top down processing
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them is ____.
The ____ refers to the minimum stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected ___ percent of the time.
According to ___ theory, a person's experience, expectations, motivation and fatigue all influence he detection of a stimulus.
Some entrepreneurs claim that exposure to "below threshold or ____ stimuli can be persuasive, but their claims are probably unwarranted.
Some weak stimuli may trigger in our sensory receptors to a response that is processed by the brain, even though the response doesn't cross the threshold into ____ awareness.
Under certain conditions, an invisible image or word can ___ a person's response to a later question. This illustrates that much of our information processing occurs ____.
The minimum difference required to distinguish two stimuli 50% of the time is called the ____. Another term for this value is the ____.
just noticeable difference (jnd)
The principle that the difference threshold is not a constant amount, but a constant proportion, is known as ____. The proportion depends on the ____.
After constant exposure to an unchanging stimulus, the receptor cells of our senses begin to fire less vigorously; this phenomenon is called ____.
This phenomenon illustrates that sensation is designed to focus on ____ changes in the environment.
Stimulus energy is ____ into ___ messages by our eyes.
The visible spectrum of light is a small portion of the larger spectrum of ___ radiation.
The distance from one light wave peak to the next is called ____. This value determines the wave's color or ____.
The amount of energy in light waves or ____ determined by a wave's ____, or height, influences the ____ of a light.
Light enters the eye through the ____, then passes through a small opening calle dthe ___; the size of this opening is controlled by the colored ____.
By changing its curvature, the ____ can focus the image of an object onto the ___ the light sensitive inner surface of the eye.
The process by which the lens changes shape to focus images is called ___.
The retina's receptor cells are the ___ and ____.
The neural signals produced in the rods and cones activate the neighboring ____ cells, which then activate a network of ____ cells. The axoms of ganglion cells converge to form the ____ which carries the visual information to the ____.
Where this nerve leaves the eye, there are no receptors thus the area is called the ____.
Most cones are clustered around the retina's point of central focus, called the ____, whereas the rods are concentrated in more ____ regions of the retina. Many cones have their own ____ cells to communicate with the visual cortex.
It is the ____ of the eye that permit the perception of color, whereas ____ enable black and white vision.
Unlike cones, in dim light the rods are ____. Adapting to a darkened room will take the retina approximately ____ minutes.
Visual information percolates through progressively more ____ levels. In the brain it is routed by the ___ to higher level brain areas. Hubel and Wiesel discovered that certain neurons in the ____ of the brain respond only to specific features of what is viewed. They called these neurons ____.
Feature detectors pass their information to higher level cells in the brain, which respond to specific visual scenes. Research has shown that in monkey brains such cells specialize in responding to a specific ____, _____, ____, or ____. In many corticol areas, teams of cells (____) respond to complex patterns.
The brain acheives its remarkable speed in visual perception by processing several subdivisions of a stimulus ____. This procedure called ____ may explain why people who have suffered a stroke may lose just one aspect of vision.
Other brain-damaged people may demonstrate ____ by responding to a stimulus that is not consciously perceived.
An object appears to be red in color because it ____ the long wavelengths of red and because of our mental ____ of the color.
One out of every 50 people is color deficient; this is usually a male because the defect is genetically _____.
According to the ___ theory, the eyes have 3 types of color receptors: one reacts most strongly to ____, one to ____, and one to _____.
After staring at a green square for a while, you will see the color red, its ___ color as an ___.
Hering's theory of color vision is called the ____ theory. According to this theory, after visual information leaves the receptors it is analyzed in terms of pairs of opposing colors: ____ versus ____, ____ versus ____, and ____ versus ____.
The stimulus for hearing, or ___ is sound waves created by the compression and expansion of ____.
The amplitude of a sound wave determines the ____ we perceive.
The frequency of a sound wave determines the ____ we perceive.
Sound energy is measured in units called ____. The absolute threshold for hearing is arbitrarily defined as ____ such units.
The ear is divided into 3 main parts: the ___ ear, the ____ ear, and the ___ ear.
The outer ear channels sound waves toward the ____, a tight membrane that then vibrates.
The middle ear transmits the vibrations through a piston made of three small bones: the ____, ____ and ____.
In the inner ear, a coiled bony fluid filled tube called the ____ contains receptor cells for hearing. The incoming vibrations cause the ____ to vibrate the fluid that fills the tube, which causes ripples in the ____ bending the ____ that line its surface. This movement triggers impulses in the adjacent nerve fibers that converge to form the auditory nerve, which carries the neural messages (via the ___) to the ___ lobe's auditory cortex.
The brain interprets loudness from the ____ of hair cells a sound activates.
One theory of pitch perception proposes that different pitches activate different places on the cochlea's basilar membrane; this is the ___ theory. This theory has difficulty accounting for how we hear ____-pitched sounds, which do not have such localized effects.
A second theory proposes that the frequency of neural impulses, sent to to the brain at the same frequency as sound waves, allows the perception of different pitches. This is the ___ theory. This theory fails to account for the perception of ___ pitched sounds because individual neurons cannot fire faster than ____ times per second.
For the higher pitches, cells may alternate their firing to match the sound's frequency, according to the ____ principle.
We locate a sound by sensing differences in the ____ and ____ with which it reaches our ears.
A sound that comes from directly ahead will be ___ to locate than a sound that comes off to one side.
Problems in the mechanical conduction of sound waves through the outer or middle ear may cause ____.
conduction hearing loss
Damage to the cochlea's hair cell receptors or their associated auditory nerves can cause ____ hearing loss. It may be caused by disease, but more often it results from the biological changes linked with ___ and prolonged exposure to ear splitting noise or music.
An electronic device that restores hearing among nerve-deafened people is a ____.
Advocates of ____ object to the use of these implants on ___ before they have learned to ____. The basis for their argument is that deafness is not a ____.
Sign language ____ a complete language, ____ its own grammar, syntax, and semantics. People who lose one channel of sensation (such as hearing) ____ compensate with a slight enhancement in their other sensory abilities.
Deaf children raised in a household where sign language is used express higher ____ and feel more _____.
The sense of touch is a mixture of at least four senses: ___, ___, ____, and ____. Other skin sensations, such as tickle, itch, hot, and wetness, are ____ of the basic ones.
The ____ influence on touch is illustrated by the fact that a self produced tickle produces less activation in the ____ than someone else's tickle. This influence is also seen in the ____ illusion.
The system for sensing the position and movement of body parts is called ____. The receptors for this sense are located in the ____, _____, ____, and _____.
The sense that monitors the position and movement of the head (and thus the body) is the _____. The receptors for this sense are located in the ____ and _____ of the inner ear.
People born without the ability to feel pain may be unaware of experiencing severe ____. More numerous are those who live with ____ pain in the form of persistent headaches and backaches, for example.
Pain is a property of our ___ as well as our ____ and ____, and our surrounding ____.
The pain system ____triggered by one specific type of physical energy. The body has specialized ____ receptors that detect hurtful stimuli.
Melzack and Wall have proposed a theory of pain called the ____ theory, which proposes that there is a neurological ____ in the ____ that blocks pain signals or lets them through. It may be opened by activation of ___ nerve fibers and closed by activation of ____ fibers or by information from the ____.
Pain producing brain activity may be triggered with our without ____.
A sensation of pain in an amputated leg is referred to as a ____ sensation. Another example is ____, experienced by people who have a ringing-in-the-ears sensation.
The basic taste sensations are ____, ___, ____, ____, and a meaty taste called ____.
Taste, which is a ____ sense, is enabled by the 200 or more ____ on the top and sides of the tongue. Each contain a ____ that catches food chemicals.
Taste receptors reproduce themselves every ____. As we age, the number of taste buds ____ and our taste sensitivity ____. Taste is also affected by ____ and by ____ use.
week or two
When the sense of smell is blocked, as when we have a cold, foods do not taste the same; this illustrates the principle of ____. The ____ effect occurs when we ____ a speaker saying one syllable while ____ another.
In a few more individuals, the senses become joined a phenomenon called ____.
Like taste, smell, or ____, is a ____ sense. There ____ a distinct receptor for each detectable odor.
Odors are able to evoke memories and feelings because there is a direct link between the brain area that gets information from the nose and the ancient ____ centers associated with memory and emotion.
According to the ____ school of psychology, we tend to organize a cluster of sensations into a ____, or form.
When we view a scene, we see the central object, or ____, as distinct from surrounding stimuli, or the ____.
Proximity, similarity, closure, continuity, and connectedness are examples of Gestalt rules of ____.
The principle that we organize stimuli into smooth, continuous patterns is called _____. The principle that we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object is ____. The grouping of items that look alike is the principle of ____. The tendency to perceive uniform or attached items as a single unit is the principle of ____.
The ability to see objects in three dimensions despite their two dimensional representations on our retinas is called ____. It enables us to estimate ____.
Gibson and Walk developed the ____ to test depth perception in infants. They found that each species, by the time it is ____, has the perceptual abilities it needs.
Any cue that requires both eyes: ____.
The greater the differences between the images received by the 2 eyes the nearer the object: ____. 3-D movies stimulate this cue by photographing each scene with 2 cameras.
Any cue that requires either eye alone: ____.
If two objects are presumed to be the same size, the one that casts a smaller retinal image is perceived as farther away: ____.
An object partially covered by another is seen as farther away: ____.
Objects lower in the visual field are seen as nearer: ____.
As we move, objects at different distances appear to move at different rates: ___.
Parallel lines appear to converge in the distance: ___.
The dimmer of 2 objects seems farther away: ____.
light and shadow
Our brain normally computes motion based partly on the assumption that shrinking objects are ____ and enlarging objects are ____. Sometimes we are fooled because larger objects seem to move ____ than smaller objects.
The brain interprets as a rapid series of slightly varying images as ____. This phenomenon is called _____.
The illusion of movement that results when 2 adjacent stationary spots of light blink on and off in quick succession is called the ____.
Our tendency to see objects as unchanging while the stimuli from them change in size, shape, and lightness is called ____.
Due to shape and size constancy, familiar objects ___ appear to change shape or size despite changes in our ____ images of them.
Several illusions, including the ___ and ___ illusions, are explained by the interplay between perceived ___ and perceived ____. When distance cues are removed these illusions are ____.
The brain computes an object's brightness ____ surrounding objects.
The amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings is called ____.
The experience of color depends on the surrounding ____ in which an object is seen. In an unvarying context, a familiar object will be perceived as having consistent color, even as the light changes. This phenomenon is called _____.
We see color as a result of our brains' computations of the light ____ by any object relative to its ____.
The idea that knowledge comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences was proposed by the philosopher ____.
On the other side were philosophers who maintained that we learn to perceive the world by experiencing it. One philosopher of this school was ____.
Studies of cases in which vision has been restored to a person who was blind from birth show that, upon seeing tactilely familiar objects for the first time, the person ____ recognizes them
Studies of sensory restriction demonstrate that visual experiences during ___ are crucial for perceptual development. Such experiences suggest that there is a ____ for normal sensory and perceptual development.
Humans given glasses that shift or invert the visual field ___ adapt to the distorted perception. This is called ____.
Animals such as chicks ____ to distorting lenses.
do not adapt
A mental predisposition that influences perception is called a _____.
How a stimulus is perceived depends on our perceptual ____ and the ____ in which it is experienced.
The context of a stimulus creates a ____ expectation that influences our perception as we match our ____ signal against it.
Our perception is also influenced by ____ about gender and the ___ context of our experiences.
To best understand perception, we need multiple levels of analysis because perception is a ____ phenomenon.
Psychologists who study the importance of considering perceptual principles in the design of machines, appliances, and work settings are called ____ psychologists.
Victims of the "curse of knowledge" technology developers who assume that others share their ____ may create designs that are unclear to others.
Another example of failure to consider the human factor in design is the "____" technology that provides embarrassing headsets that amplify sound for people with hearing loss.
Perception outside the range of normal sensation is called ____.
Psychologists who study ESP are called ____.
The form of ESP in which people claim to be capable of reading others' minds is called ____. A person who "senses" that a friend is in danger might claim to have the ESP ability of ____. An ability to "see" into the future is called ___. A person who claims to be able to levitate and move objects is claiming the power of ____.
Analyses of psychic visions and premonitions reveal ____ accuracy. Nevertheless some people continue to believe in their accuracy because vague predictions often are later ___ to match events that have already occurred. In addition, people are most likely to recall or ____ dreams that seem to have come true.
Critics point out that a major difficulty for parapsychology is that ESP phenomena are not consistently _____.
Researchers who tried to reduce external distractions between a "sender" and a "receiver" in an ESP experiment reported performance levels that ____ chance levels. Follow up studies ____.
failed to replicate the results