|Three Objectives to First Aid||Prevent further injury, prevent further infection, and the loss of life.|
|Four Methods of Controlling Bleeding||Direct pressure, elevation, pressure points, and the use of a tourniquet as a last resort.|
|What is a pressure point and how many are there?||Where a main artery lies near the skin surface and over a bone. There are 11 pressure points on each side of the body.|
|Types of Pressure Points||Facial Artery (jaw), Common Carotid Artery (neck), Brachial Artery ( inner elbow), Popliteal Artery (knee).|
|Three Types of Burns|| First Degree: redness, mild pain.|
Second Degree: redness, blistering, severe pain.
Third Degree: destroyed skin tissue, nerve endings destroyed.
|Types of Fractures|| Closed/Simple: broken bone without puncturing skin.|
Open/Compound: punctured skin with possible bone protrusion.
|Electric Shock||When a person comes into contact with an electric energy source.|
|Obstructed Airways||Inability to talk, grasping and pointing to the throat, exaggerated breathing, bluish skin color.|
|Heat Exhaustion||Disturbance of bloodflow to the brain, heart, and lungs. Skin is cool, moist, and clammy. Pupils are dilated. Sweating profusely.|
|Heat Stroke||Unable to eliminate excessive body heat buildup. Hot/Dry skin, Uneven pupil dilation, Weak and rapid pulse.|
|Hypothermia||General cooling of whole body caused by exposure to low or rapidly falling temperature. Pale or unconscious, shallow and slow breathing, faint pulse, skin feels semi-rigid, stiff limbs.|
|Superficial Frostbite||When ice crystals are forming in the upper skin layers after exposure to 32 degrees or lower.|
|Deep Frostbite||When ice crystals are forming in the deeper tissues after exposure to 32 degrees or lower.|
|Septic Shock||Bacteria multiplying in the blood and releasing toxins. Common causes are pneumonia, intra-abdominal infections, and meningitis.|
|Anaphylactic Shock||Hypersensitivity or allergic reaction. Caused by insect stings, medicines, or foods.|
|Cardiogenic Shock||When heart is damaged and unable to supply sufficient blood to the body. Results in heart attack or congestive heart failure.|
|Hypovolemic Shock||Caused by severe blood and fluid loss, which makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body.|
|Neurogenic Shock||Caused by spinal cord injury, usually as a result of a traumatic accident or injury.|