hyphae with cross-walls which divide molds into distinct uninucleate cell-like units
nonfilamentous, unicellular, spherical or oval, frequently found as white powdery coating on fruits and leaves, facultative anaerobic growth, survive in various elements
are bacterial endospores more or less tolerant to extreme environmental issues than fungal spores?
spores result from the fusion of nuclei from two opposite mating strains of the same species of fungus; genetic similarities to both parents
type of asexual spore, unicellular or multicellular spore NOT enclosed in a sac, produced in a chain at the end of a conidiophore, spores produced by aspergillus
Ascospores differ from conidia in the manner that, ascospores are BLANK, and conidia are BLANK
fungal infections deep within the body, usually from fungi living in soil, inhalation of spores
fungal infections beneath the skin caused by saprophytic fungi living in soil and vegetation
dermatophytes secrete enzyme keratinase to degrade what protein found in skin, hair and nails?
generally harmless in its normal habitat, but can become pathogenic in a host who is seriously debilitated or traumatized
zygomycota/conjugation fungi, example of mycosis is black bread mold, produces sporangiospores (asexual spores)
causes aspergillosis, opportunistic mycoses, occurs in people with debilitating lung diseases or cancer and have inhaled the spores,
usually only infect immunocompromised patients, AIDS patients, inhaled fungus in bird droppings, effects central nervous system, causes meningitis and death at high rates
fungal skin infection, causes itchy red raised scaly patches of skin that can blister or ooze
unicellular or filamentous, aquatic, need moisture, simple eurkaryotic photoautotrophs, lack tissues of plants, produce sexually or asexually
feeding and growing stage of protozoa, feeds upon bacteria and small particulate nutrients
two cells fuse, and a haploid nucleus from each cell migrates to the other cell, this haploid micronucleus fuses with the haploid micronucleus within the cell, parent cells separate each now a fertilized cell, later divide into daughter cells
parasitic archaezoa, causes Giardiasis, found in the small intestine of humans and other mammals, excreted in the feces as a cyst
only pathogenic amoeba found in the human intestine, causes amoebic dysentry, transmitted human to human by eating the cysts in infected feces
obligate intracellular parasites, not motile in mature form, presence of a complex of special organelles at the tips of their cells
most common form of malaria, life cycle is very quick, sometimes referred to as "dormant malaria," develops in mosquitoes at lower temperature
most dangerous form of malaria, very recent form or malaria making it more dangerous because humans haven't had a chance for our bodies to become used to this form of malaria, referred to as "malignant malaria"
5 apicomplexa human parasites
plasmodium, babesia microti, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium, cyclospora cayetanensis
apicomplexa, causes diarrhea, transmitted to humans through feces of cows, rodents, dogs and cats
apicomplexa similar to cryptosporidium, responsible for 300 cases of diarrhea associated with snow peas in the US and Canada
euglenozoa, causes lesions either on the skin or on the organs depending on the type, caused by a bite from a female sandfly
euglenozoa, known as American trypanosomiasis, protozoan disease of the cardiovascular system, transmitted by the "kissing bug" (reduviid bug-arthropod)
euglenozoa, African sleeping disease, transmitted by the bite of tsetse fly
blood parasites, transmitted by blood-feeding insects, found in circulatory system of host
lack a digestive system, nervous system reduced, locomotion reduced or completely lacking, reproductive system is often complex
adult helminths where male reproductive organs are in one individual and female reproductive organs are in another
flukes, type of platyhelminths, flat, leaf-shaped bodies with ventral and oral suckers to keep them in place, obtain food through outer cuticle (outer layer)
tapeworms, type of platyhelminths, intestinal parasites, do not ingest tissues of host, lack digestive system, absorb food through cuticle
members of phyla nematoda, cylindrical in shape, have complete digestive systems, some free-living, some live off of host
large nematode, sexual dimorphism, lives in the small intestines of humans exclusively; feeds on semidigested food, infects children when playing in dirt
live in small intestines of humans, eggs are excreted in feces, enters host by penetrating hosts skin (feet), wear shoes to prevent, eventually moves to blood and lymph vessels, then to lungs
caused by nematode, causes heartworm primarily in dogs and cats, can infest humans, comes from mosquito bites
these are all chracteristics of what?
Chitin/ Cell wall
Lack Chlorophyll (no photosynthesis)
An organism that uses organic molecules as a source of carbon and energy is called
facultative (survive in varitey of hostile conditions)
anaerobic (no oxygen)
Low Moisture acidic environements
metabolize complex carbs
these all represent nutrition of what?
nutrition of fungi
a structure of a parasitic plant or fungus that penetrates host tissues to obtain food and water
3 types of asexual spores formation
___________are formed by the fragmentation of septate hyphae into single, slightly thickened cells
lack a cell wall. Most are chemoheterotrophes. name this organism
All free-living aquatic and pathogenic protozoa exist as a motile feeding stage called a ______________
many protozoa have a hardy resting stage called a _____, which is characterized by a thick capsule and a low metabolic rate.
chemoheterotrophic: obtaining nutrients by phagocytizing bacteria, decaying organic matter, other protozoa, or the tissues of a host; a few protozoa absorb nutrients from the surrounding water.
reproduce asexually only, by binary fission or schizogony; few are sexual
how do protozoa reproduce?
______ is nuclear division of diploid cells that results in four haploid daughter nuclei. sexual reproduction
Taxonomists continue to revise and refine the classification of ______ based on 18S rRNA nucleotide sequencing and features made visible by electron microscopy.
what is a well-known opportunistic pathogenic parabasalid causes severe inflammation of the human vagina?
what does the name of the group apicomplexans refer to?
complex (group) of special organelles that infect at the apex
what do Amoebozoas cause?
disease in brains of humans and animals that swim in water containing them
Plasmodial slime molds are composed of _________ ______ of _______
multinucleate filaments of cytoplasm.
the characteristics of euglenoids are __________,_________ and _________
photoautotrophic, unicellular, chloroplasts
what do Euglenoids have that helps maintain shape?
semi-rigid, proteinaceous, helical (spiral) shaped pellicle
without crosswalls, (undivided) and coenocytic, (contain many nuclei, not separated by cell walls)
the thalli (bodies) of yeasts are ________, ________ and are composed of a ________ ________
small, globular, single cell
from other living organisms via modified hyphea called haustoria
How do other fungi get nutrients?
how many known species of molds and yeasts does the divsion Ascomycota contain?
32,000 known species
what happens after the basidiomycetes decompose cellulose and lignin?
nutrients are returned to the soil
Lichens composed of fungi living in partnership with 2 types of photosynthetic microbes,
Cyanobacteria and green algae
what are lichens used for ?
nitrogen, food for animals/ humans, dyes, clothing, perfume, medicine and to monitor air quality
Multicellular algae typically reproduce in two ways, what are they?
asexually by fragmentation or sexually by an alternation of generations
a haploid thallus alternates with a diploid thallus what is this called?
alternation of generations
starch as food
live in freshwater
seasoning pepper /Codium
Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
_________contains the pigment phycoerythrin, the storage molecule glycogen, and cell walls of agar or carrageenan
this algae is used as a thickening agent in microbiology media & foods like ice cream, toothpaste, syrups; salad dressing
__________contain brown pigments called xanthopylls and a polysaccharide called laminarin +oil cell walls are composed of cellulose and alginic acid; also a thickening agent
this Algae is most diverse in cell wall structure but uniform in use of the polysaccharide
Chrysophyta, the golden
chrysophytes of Golden Algae contain more orange-colored _______ than chlorophyll, which accounts for their golden coloring
silica cell walls (frustules)
major component of phytoplankton;
major source of world's oxygen.
unicellular algae; make up most freshwater and marine plankton responsible for red tides; bioluminescent
this crop pathogen devastated the potato crop in Ireland during the mid-19th century, causing a famine that killed over 1 million people. What was this?
Water Mold called Phytophthora infestans
Protozoans are critical members of this free-living drifting organism, that forms the basis of the aquatic food chain; name this protozoan organism
-Can be Haploid (having a single copy of each chromosome) or Diploid (having two copies)
-Divides by mitosis in four phases resulting in two nuclei with the same ploidy(# of sets of chromosomes) as the original.
multiple mitoses, the cell forms many nuclei and the cytoplasm separates. Multinucleate schizont
Classification of Eukaryotic Microbes
-Problematic and changed frequently
- Historical schemes based on similarities in morphology and chemistry have been replaced with schemes based on nucleotide sequences and ultrastructural features.
eukaryotic, unicellular organisms that lack cell walls. Most of them are chemoheterotrophs.
Sexual Reproduction of a few protozoa
forming gametocytes (gamete) that fuse with one another to form a diploid zygote.
7 Classifications of Protazoa
alveolates, cercozoa, radiolaria, amoebozoa, euglenozoa, diplomonads, and parabasalids.
have cavities beneath their cell surfaces called alveoli, include ciliate alveolates (cilia), apicomplexans (all are pathogenic), and dinoflagellates (responsible for red tides).
Protozoa that move and feed with pseudopodia.
-Cercozoa: threadlike pseudopodia and calcium carbonate shells.
-Radiolaria: threadlike pseudopodia and silica shells
-Amoebozoa: lobed shaped pseudopodia. includes free living amoebae, parasitic amoebae, and slime molds.
Unicellular/ flagellated/ store food as paramylon/lack cell walls/ have eyespots used in postive phototaxis.
-They exhibit characteristics of both animals and plants therefore they are a taxonomic problem.
euglenozoan with a single, large, apical mitochondiron that contains a kinetoplastm which is a region of DNA.
eg. Trichomonas/ are characterized by a Golgi body-like structure called a parabasal body.
chemoheterotrophic eukaryotes with cell walls usually composed of chitin. Most are benefical but some produces mycoses (fungal disease)
noreproductive body of a filamentous fungus (mold) or yeast (unicellular fungus). Mold thalli are composed of tubular filaments called hyphae.
can take either form of fungi (hyphae or yeast) depending upon growth conditions, such as temperature.They have either type of thallus depending on environmental conditions.
An organism that acts as a decomposer by absorbing nutrients from dead organic matter.
In parasitic fungi, a nutrient-absorbing hyphal tip that penetrates the tissues of the host but remains outside the host cell membranes.
-most fungi reproduce sexually by sexual spores
-asexually by either budding or asexual spores
Unicellular parasites of animals and protists that molecular comparisons suggest may be most closely related to zygomycete fungi.
molds and yeasts that are characterized by the formation of haploid ascospores within sacs calles asci.
include mushrooms, puffballs, and bracket fungi, produce basidiospores at ends of basidia.
large and heterogeneous form division of fungi comprising forms for which no sexually reproductive stage is known
economically and environmentally important organisms composed of fungi living in partnership with photosynthetic microbes, either green algae or cyanobacteria.
typically reproduce by an alternation of generations in which a haploid thallus alternates with a diploid thallus.
multicellular thalli with stemlike stipes, leaflike blades, and holdfasts that attach them to substrates.
large division of chiefly freshwater eukaryotic algae that possess chlorophyll a and b, store food as starch, and cellulose cell walls
contain the pigment phycoerythrin, the storage molecule floridean starch, and cell walls of agar or carrageenan, substances used as thickening agents.
Contains xanthophylls, laminarin, and oils. They have cell walls composed of cellulose and alginic acid, which is another thickening agent. A brown algal spore is motile by means of one "hairy" flagellum and one whiplike flagellum.
yellow-green algaem and diatoms contain chrysolaminarin as a storage product. The silica cell walls of diatoms are arranged in nesting halves called frustules.
have tubular cristae in their mitochondria, cell walls of cellulose, spores having two different flagella, and diploid thalli.
signigicant to microbiologists in part because their infective stages are usually microscopic.
Which of the following sequences reflects the correct order of events in mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Which of the following statements accurately describes prophase?
The cell constructs microtubules to form a spindle.
Which of the following features characterizes diatoms?
protective plates of cellulose in their cells
Pathogenic Protozoan Ciliate (the only one); usually occurs in pigs; also in rodents and primates
Symptoms: may cause diarrhea, abdominal pain and weight loss with intestinal lesions; spread by fecal contamination of water and food
Pathogenic Protozoan Apicomplexan; causes Malaria; parasite multiplies and destroys red blood cells and liver cells
Symptoms: intense chills, fever, sweating with headache and diarrhea; may be chronic disease with periodic relapses; severity depends on species, mild to fatal; spread by bite of infected mosquito
Pathogenic Protozoan Apicomplexan; carried in G.I. tract with no symptoms in up to about 30% of the population; spread by fecally contaminated water (especially around livestock), or direct fecal-oral transmission
Symptoms: may cause severe diarrhea, abdominal cramping, muscle pain, headache, and weight loss
Pathogenic Protozoan Apicomplexan; up to 40% of U.S. population may be infected, also occurs in many mammals and birds; usually acquired by ingesetion of poorly-cooked meat, but also from fecally-contaminated soil or plants (especially by cats)
Symptoms: Usually asymptomatic, except in the immunocompromised, or fetus where can cause severe brain damage and blindness
Gymnodinium sp. and Gonyaulax sp.
Pathogenic Protozoan Dinoflagellate; produce Neurotoxins; when present in abundance in marine waters they cause "Red Tide" resulting in large fish die-offs
Gymnodinium sp. and Gonyaulax sp.
humans can be poisoned by eating shellfish from infested areas because the shellfish eat the Dinoflagellates and concentrate the toxins
Pathogenic Protozoan Dinoflagellate; produces VERY potent neurotoxin that may cause illness from handling infected fish or inhaling contaminated air
Symptoms: Confusion, memory loss, headache, breathing difficulty, skin rash, muscle cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea
Pathogenic Protozoan Amoeba; carried with no symptoms in G.I. tract of about 10% of population; may spread via blood, and cause lesions in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and brain; usually fatal if untreated; spread by ingestion of fecally-contaminated water or food, or oral-anal sex
Symptoms: depend on the strain and health of the person, ranges from asymptomatic to Amebic Dysentery- results in colitis, appendicitis, and ulceration of intestinal mucosa; resulting in severe diarrhea with mucous and blood
Acanthamoeba sp. and Naegleria sp.
Pathogenic Protozoan Amoeba; usually free-living in sediments of warm freshwater; may cause fatal brain infections; enter through broken skin or mucosa (A.), or intact nasal mucosa (N.); death a few days to a few weeks after neurological symptoms appear
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; causes African Sleeping Sickness; spread by bite of infected Tsetse Fly feeding on domestic or wild animal reservoirs
Symptoms: untreated parasite invades the CNS, resulting in headache, extreme drowsiness, neurological abnormalities, coma, and death
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; causes Chagas' Disease; primarily seen in Central and South America (some outbreaks in California and Texas); spread by bite wound contamination from feces of infected Triatomid Bug (Kissing Bug); Armadillos and Opossums are the primary reservoirs; Parasite-induced heart disease is the major cause of death in Latin America
Symptoms: untreated results in myocarditis and eventually Congestive Heart Failure due to parasite accumulating in the heart muscle
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; causes Leishmaniasis (L.) in Central and South America, Central and South Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East; Severity depends on the species
"Baghdad Boil"; results in painless skin ulcers usually with scarring due to bacterial infection
results in skin, oral, and nasal mucous membrane ulcers with permanent disfiguring damage
Kalazar; results in liver, spleen, bone marrow (with severe anemia), and lymph node infection which is usually fatal if untreated, unlike other two forms
(G. lamblia)- causes one of the more common water-borne G.I. tract diseases in the U.S.
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; parasite in the G.I. tracts of humans and animals (domestic and wild) worldwide, also in water, soil, and contaminated objects, since spread by fecal contamination, including from infected dogs
Symptoms: disease can vary from asymptomatic to severe with watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, and low fever; occasionally tissue damage and major fluid loss
Pathogenic Protozoan Flagellate; worldwide, causes MOST COMMON PROTOZOAN DISEASE IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES-VAGINITIS in females; transmitted sexually
Symptoms: in females: pus-filled, odorous discharge, vaginal and cervical lesions, pain with urination and intercourse and found in the vulva and vagina; in males: usually asymptomatic and found in the prostate and urethra
species of fungi that was used by Beadle and Tatum to show that one gene codes for one enzyme
vegetative (nutrient-obtaining) body of fungus; in yeasts, it is unicellular, small, and globular; in molds, it is large and composed of Hyphae
modified Hyphae that penetrate host tissue; they allow some fungi to derive nutrients from living plants and animals
bud in a manner similar to prokaryotic budding; form pseudohyphae (series of buds that remain attached to one another and to parent cell forming short chain, as in Candida albicans
Molds (Filamentous Fungi)
Their asexual reproduction includes the production of lightweight spores that differ in their mode of development; Sporangiospores, Chlamydospores, and Conidiospores
those that form within a sac (Sporangium) at the end of a stalk attached to a Hyphae
Conidiospores (or Conidia)
naked spore (not within sac) that form at the ends or sides of Hyphae as fragments, buds, or in chains at the end of a stalk
Sexual reproduction in Fungi
Haploid cells form a (+) Thallus and a (-) Thallus that fuse to form a Dikaryon, eventually, 2 Haploid nuclei fuse within the Dikaryon forming a diploid nucleus, which undergoes Meiosis to form 2 haploid nuclei; Some then develop into (+) spores or (-) spores and on into (+) or (-) Thalli
Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Deuteromycetes
The Four Divisions of Fungi; equivalent to Phyla in other Kingdoms, and based on type of Sexual spore produced
Most are Saprobes; the rest are obligate parasites of insects and other fungi; they reproduce sexually by forming Zygosporangia; Examples include Rhizopus nigricans, Nosema sp., and Microsporidium sp.
obligate intracellular parasite on insects, such as silkworms, honeybees, and grasshoppers; example of a fungus from the Zygomycota division of fungi
Nosema sp. and Microsporidium
can cause disease in immunocompromised people; example of a fungus from the Zygomycota division of fungi
Division of fungi that reproduce sexually by forming Ascospores within sacs (Asci); Many are Saprobes; most food spoilage is due to fungi in this group
Dutch Elm Diseases and Chestnut Blight
these are fungal plant pathogens caused by members of the Ascomycota division of fungi
Fungal Plant Pathogen from the Ascomycota division of fungi that grows on grain and forms the toxin LSD (which causes abortions in cattle and Hallucinogen in humans)
Useful member of the Ascomycota division of fungi that is the source of a very important antibiotic discovered by Fleming
Useful member of the Ascomycota division of fungi that produces ethanol and CO2 via Alcohol Fermentation
Useful member of the Ascomycota division of fungi that is the Mycorrhizae of oak and beech tree roots; an edible delicacy (Truffles)
Division of Fungi that reproduce sexually by forming Basidiospores attache to ends of club-shaped Basidia, which are part of the fruiting body, the Basidiocarp (cap or umbrella-like top)
Division of Fungi; most are Saprobes and are important decomposers of Cellulose in Lignin in dead plants; examples are edible and poisonous mushrooms, puffballs, etc., some plant pathogens causing rusts and smuts, and a human pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans
Example of a highly toxic mushroom from the Basidiomycota division of fungi (AKA "Death Cap")
yeast that is the leading cause of fungal meningitis (Basidiomycota division example)
Heterogeneous collection of fungi whose sexual stages are unknown, although an analysis of their rRNA sequences indicates that most belng in the Ascomycota division
Division of Fungi in which most are terrestrial Saprobes, or pathogens of plants or other fungi
abundant throughout the world, particularly in pristine habitats (do not grow in polluted environments); grow on soil, rocks, leaves, tree bark, othe Lichens, and even on the backs of tortoises; almost every habitat
Important in the creation of soil from rocks; eaten by many animals; used in the production of foods, dyes, clothing, perfumes, and medicines
Simple, Eukaryotic, Phototrophic organisms that carry out Oxygenic Photosynthesis using Chlorophyll a (to capture the energy of light); have sexual reproductive structure; and differ widely in distribution, morphology, reproduction, and biochemical traits
every algal cell becomes a ___________ (which is a unique characteristic of Algae) which fuses with another to form a zygote
Most are aquatic, living in the Photic Zone (that penetrated by sunlight) of fresh, brackish, and salt water
Have Accessory Photosynthetic pigments that trap light energy and pass it to Chlorophyll a (a Primary Pigment)
Many Multicellular ______ reproduce sexually with Alternation of Generations of Haploid and Diploid individuals
How Water Molds differ from Fungi
They have tubular Cristae in their Mitochondria, their Cell Walls are made of Cellulose instead of Chitin, their spores have 2 Flagella-one whip-like and one hairy, and they have true diploid thalli
Decompose dead animals in aquatic habitats and return nutrients to the environment; some plant pathogens of grapes, tobacco, and potatoes
water mold plant pathogen that infected and devastated potato crop in Ireland resulting in the great famine there and major Irish immigration to U.S. and Canada