# Unit 2: Population

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### Define: Demography

The scientific study of population characteristics

### We can understand how population is distributed by examining two basic properties-_______& _______.

concentration; density

### 2/3 of the world's inhabitants are clustered in four regions. They are:

East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe

### Define: Cartogram

Maps that depict the size of countries according to population rather than land area

China

India

West Africa

### Define: Ecumene

the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement

### Define: Arithmetic density

most frequently used by geographers; total number of objects in an area

### Define: Physiological density

the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land

Physiological

### Define: Agricultural density

the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land

MDCs

### Define: Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society

### Define: Crude Death Rate (CDR)

the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society

### Natural Increase Rate (NIR)

the percent by which a population grows in a year (CBR-CDR)

### Define: Doubling time

the number of years needed to double a population

LDCs

### Define: Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

measures the number of births in a society; the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years

### Define: Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age, compared with total live births; also per 1000 births

Life expectancy

### Define: Demographic transition

process with several stages, and every country is in one of them

low growth

### Stage 2 of the demographic transition is characterized by _______

high growth;CDR plummets while CBR remains the same

### Stage 3 of the demographic transition is characterized by______

moderate growth; birth rate starts declining with death rates but CBR is still greater than the CDR

high;low

### Define: Agricultural revolution

time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied completely on hunting and gathering

### Countries entered stage 2 after 1750 because of the _______

Industrial revolution

### Define: Medical revolution

medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to LDCs

social customs

when CBR=CDR

2.1

### Define: Stage 5

higher death rates than birth rates and irreversible population decline

### Population in a country is influenced by the demographic transition in two ways:_______ and __________

the percentage of the population in each age group; the distribution of males and females

### Define: Population pyramid

bar graph that displays a country's age and gender groups

CBR

### Define: Dependency ratio

the number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years (0-14,65+)

### Define: Sex ratio

the number of males per hundred females

Thomas Malthus

### Thomas Malthus wrote ___________________

"An Essay on the Principle of Population."(1798)

### Emphasizing reliance on _________ and distribution of _________ has reduced birth rates

economic development; contraceptives

### Define: Epidemiologic transition

focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition

### Define: Epidemiology

the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality

### Epidemiologic Transition stages 1 and 2

infectious and parasitic diseases were principal causes of human death

### Define: Black Plague

transmitted to humans by fleas from migrating infected rats

### Define: Pandemic (stage 2)

disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population

### Epidemiologic Transition stage 3

the stage of degenerative and human created diseases. Characterized by a decrease in death from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders

### Epidemiologic Transition stage 4

stage of delayed degenerative diseases

### Epidemiologic Transition stage 5

The stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases through evolution, poverty, and improved travel

Example: