how organisms interact in and with the natural world.
an ___ ___ is the interaction and interdependence of organisms and their biological, chemical, and physical environment
individual, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
list the 5 levels of organisms from smallest and all singular.
a group of individuals of the same species
a group of individuals of different species
The regions of the surface and atmosphere of the earth or other planet occupied by living organisms (as far up as can support life)
range of conditions that organism can tolerate. § It's what's required for it to survive and how it fits within that environment.
place where organism lives
[T,F] 2 species can occupy the same niche at the same time (when considering minute details of the niche)
physical entities, evolutionary change
general principles of ecology: ○ Ecological systems are ___ ___, Ecological systems undergo ___ ___ over time.
number of species per unit area
hypothesis (prediction!), experiments, mathematical model
3 (Brenner said 4) components of studying ecology
The ___ ___ of human ecology means that what we do affects natural communities and the rest of the world.
F (Thoreau, Emerson, Transcendentalism, T. Roosevelt, and Nixon)
[T,F] Environmental education began in full swing with Earth Day, 1970.
most important 2 components of climate (1 abbreviated)
Figure used to show climate data
altitude, currents, urban
factors that modify climates: ___, ___, and whether an area is ___ or not.
The ___ current is cold and comes off of the Antarctic up the coast of South America
Grapes, peaches, and other fruits grow around the ___ ___ region because the water moderates the temperature and there's less severe frost
wet (amazon basin), wet-dry (Sudan), dry (Sahara)
the three tropical climates
tropical wet (Amazon basin)
___ ___ climate is 10 degrees north and south of the equator § Over 200 inches of rain/year and the temp is pretty constant.
§ Found in the amazon basin, Congo basin, the Yucatan peninsula, a little bit in Cuba, a little bit in Madagascar, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines and lower Indonesians.
tropical wet-dry (Sudan)
___ ___ climate is 10 degrees north or south of the tropical wet climate § as the warm air rises and moves N and S, the further north it goes the less the rainfall (so drier climate)
§ Rainy and dry seasons.
Brazil, Northern south America, in Africa, India, Thailand, and the top of Australia
___ ___ climate is § 20-30 degrees North and 20-30 degrees south. Includes the Sahara, South African desert, and Austrailian Outback.
dry summer (Med.), humid (Georgia)
2 subtropical climates
dry summer (Med.)
___ ___ subtropical is 30-45 degrees N to 30-45 S of equator § Wet and dry seasons: Summers are very dry but winters are very wet
§ hospitable climate, constant temps, winter rainfall with dry summers.
§ Southern CA, southern tips of Australia, and Mediterranean
the three "tropical" climates are all ___ ___ climates.
the subtropicals, mid latitude dry, marine west coast, and humid continental are all ___ ___ climates
humid subtropical (Georgia)
the ___ ___ climate is 25-43 N and 25-43 S. § Warm but very humid, like along the gulf coast and in the SE USA.
§ SW USA, below brazil, some in eastern China
mid latitude dry (Kansas)
the ___ ___ ___ climate is 35-55 N. Very dry. § mid-USA.
marine west coast (Oregon)
the ___ ___ ___ climate is 40-60 N. § Along CA, OR, WA, British Columbia, and southern AK because of warm oceanic currents.
§ The British Isles and northern France used to have this climate. Some say they still do.
§ Not widespread
humid continental (PA)
the ___ ___ climate is 35-55 N. § This is PA
§ large temp variations and high humidity.
subarctic, polar, tundra
the 3 kinds of high latitude climates
the ___ climate is 50-70 degrees north. Lower 2/3 of Alaska
the ___ climate is 0 N and S. Has reindeer frost, permafrost, severely cold winters, short trees (short growing season) even if they're 20 years old
the ___ climate is covered by ice caps