Chapter 5: The American Revolution

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Olive Branch Petition

(July, 1775) Loyalty pledge sent to King George III that asked him to intercede with Parliament for peace

Second Continental Congress

(May, 1775) Met in Philadelphia three weeks after Lexington and Concord

Thomas Paine

Author of Common Sense; believed all the colonists should break ties with Great Britain

Thomas Jefferson

Primary author of the Declaration of Independence

Loyalists/Royalists/Tories

Colonists who supported the king

George Washington

Was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army

British Regulars

"Redcoats", or British troops

Thomas Gage

Commander of the British "Redcoats" in Boston who sent a large force to seize colonists' military supplies in Concord and ordered the arrest of resistance leaders, like Samuel Adams

Bunker Hill

(June 17, 1775) "Breeds Hill"; Was the bloodiest battle of the Revolutionary War; Was also the first true battle

Benedict Arnold

American general who led the failed attack at Quebec

William Howe

Another British general who was sent to Boston to further aggressive action

Horatio Gates

British general, Burgoyne, surrendered to him at Saratoga

1783

Treaty of Paris was signed in this year, ending the Revolutionary War

1781

Cornwalis surrendered to the Patriots in Yorktown in this year

John Hancock

He was president of the Second Continental Congress and the first to sign the Declaration of Independence

Battle of Trenton/ Battle of Princeton

American victory against the Hessians in Trenton; Washington saves the army by crossing the Deleware River; these battles gave Americans hope

Anglicans

Many were Loyalists; After the Revolution the power of their church was permanently weakened

minutemen

militia

George III

Signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the Revolutionary War

Yorktown

The last major battle of the Revolutionary War; Cornwalis surrendered here

Saratoga

This battle marked the turning point of the war

Richard Henry Lee

"These United Colonies are, and of a right ought to be, free and independent states."

Hessians

German mercenaries

Articles of Confederation

The nation's first constitution, adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution

July 4, 1776

The day the Declaration of Independence was signed and approved by Congress

Redcoats

A nickname for British soldiers

Georgia

Slaves constituted half or more of the population during the Revolutionary War in this colony

Philadelphia

Where the Declaration of Independence was signed; Where the Second Continental Congress met

Cornwallis

He surrendered to the Patriots at Yorktown

George Mason

Original idealist "all men are created equal"

Suffolk Resolves

Called for a repeal of the Intolerable Acts and for the colonists to enforce strict non-importation, make military preparations, arm themselves, resist the British, and enact other sanctions

Nathaniel Greene

Joined the southern army at King's Mountain

France

Allied with the Patriots after the Patriots won the Battle of Saratoga; supported the Patriots with extra supplies, troops, and a navy

Benjamin Franklin

He negotiated France's support for the colonists

King's Mountain

This battle marked the turning point of the Revolutionary War in the South

"camp followers"

Women who followed their men by choice or economics into war, kept morale up and performed household tasks

Abigail Adams

She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create

privateers

Privately owned warships commissioned to prey on the commercial shipping or warships of an enemy nation

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

Called for the complete seperation of church and state

Anthony Wane

Defeated the Northwest Indians in 1794 at Fallen Timbers

Battle of Fallen Timbers

Ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River

Shay's Rebellion

Frightened many elites and made them believe the Revolution was not yet over; It also convinced many colonists that a stronger central government was necessary

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