Bones, Bone Tissue, Joints - Lecture

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Hold bones together at the joints?

Ligaments

Attaches muscle to bone?

Tendons

Connective tissue with a matrix hardened by minderals?

Bone (Osseous) Tissue

Functions of the Skeleton?

Support, Protection, Movement, Electrolyte Balance, Acid-Base Balance, Blood Formation

Bones that are longer than wide?

Long Bones

Bones that are equal in width & length?

Short Bones

Bones that are curved, wide, & thin?

Flat Bones

Bones that elaborate shapes & do not fit into any other category?

Irregular Bones

Spongy layer in cranium?

Diploe

Examples of Irregular Bones?

Atlas, Axis, Sphenoid, Ethmoid

Bone with two layers of compact bone enclosing a middle layer of spongy bone?

Flat Bone

Bone with compact & spongy bone, marrow cavity, articular cartilage, & epiphyses & diaphyses?

Long Bone

Cylinder shaft of compact bone to provide leverage?

Diaphysis

Space in the diaphysis of a long bone that contains bone marrow?

Medullary Cavity

Enlarged ends of a bone?

Epiphyses

Found in the end of long bones & the middle of nearly all other bones?

Spongy Bone

Layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the joint surface where one bone meets another?

Articular Cartilage

Minute holes in the bone surface that allows blood vessels to penetrate?

Nutrient Foramina

External sheath that covers bone except where there is articular cartilage?

Periosteum

Thin layer of reticular connective tissue lining marrow cavity?

Endosteum

Area of hyaline cartilage that separates the marrow spaces of the epiphysis & diaphysis?

Epiphyseal Plate (Growth Plate)

Four types of bone cells?

Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Osteogenic Cells, Osteocytes

Bone forming cells?

Osteoblasts

Former osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix they created?

Osteocytes

Tiny cavities where osteocytes reside?

Lacunae

Little channels that connect lacunae?

Canaliculi

Bone dissolving cells & give rise to red blood cells?

Osteoclasts

Pits on surface of bone where osteoclasts reside?

Resorption Bays (Howship Lacunae)

Combined action of osteoclasts & osteoblasts?

Remodeling

Organic matter of the bone matrix?

Collagen, carbohydrate, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, glycoproteins

Inorganic matter of the bone matrix?

85% Hydroxyapatite, 10% calcium carbonate, & 5% fluoride, sodium, potassium, & magnesium

Basic structural unit of compact bone?

Osteon

Formed by a central canal and its concentric lemella connected to each other by canaliculi?

Osteon

A cylinder of tissue around a central canal?

Osteon

Inner & outer boundaries of dense bone that rune parallel to bone surface?

Circumferential Lamellae

Remains of old osteons that broke down as bone grew and remodeled itself?

Interstitial Lemellae

Consists of slivers of bone called spicules, thin plates of bone called trabeculae, & spaces filled with red bone marrow?

Spongy Bone

Have few osteons & no central canals?

Trabeculae

Provides strength with minimal weight?

Spongy Bone

Soft tissue in medullary cavity (long bone) and among trabeculae (spongy bone)?

Blood Marrow

Like thick blood with reticular fibers, immature cells, hemopoietic, & found in the vertebra, ribs, sternum, pelvic girdle, & proximal heads of the adult femur & humerus?

Red Blood Marrow

Fatty marrow of long bones in adults?

Yellow Blood Marrow

Aged yellow blood marrow that has turned to reddish jelly?

Gelatinous Blood Marrow

Formation of bone?

Ossification or Osteogenesis

Ossification that produces flat bones?

Intramembraneous Ossification

Ossification that produces most bones & develops from pre-existing models?

Endochondral Ossification

Growth where bones increase in length?

Interstitial Growth

Growth where bones increase in width?

Appositional Growth

Architecture of bone determined by mechanical stresses placed on it and bones adapt to withstand those stresses?

Wolff's Law of Bone

Zone of transition facing marrow cavity?

Metaphysis

Zone with typical hyaline cartilage farthest from the marrow cavity that shows no sign of transforming into bone?

Zone of Reserve Cartilage

Zone where chondrocytes are enlarged & the matrix between the lacunae become very thin?

Zone of Hypertrophy

Zone where chrondrocytes multiply forming columns of flat lacunae?

Zone of Proliferation

Zone where mineral is deposited in the matrix between the columns of lacunae that is a temporary support for cartilage?

Zone of Calcification

Zone where chondrocytes die, longitudinal columns fill with osteoblasts and blood vessels, osteoclasts dissolve the calcified cartilage, & osteons and spongy bone are created by osteoblasts?

Zone of Bone Deposition

10% of what occurs every year throughout your life?

Bone Remodeling

A mature bone remains what type of active organ?

Metabolically

Crystallization process?

Mineralization

Deficiency of blood calcium?

Hypocalcemia

Excess of blood calcium?

Hypercalcemia

Activated Vitamin D used to raise calcium in the blood?

Calcitriol

Secreted C cells of the thyroid gland used to lower calcium in the blood?

Calcitonin

Glands on posterior surface of the thyroid used to lower calcium in the blood?

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Hormone that stimulates growth more quickly in females?

Estrogen

Any point where two bones meet, whether or not the bones are movable at that interface?

Joint

Science of joint structure, function, & dysfunction?

Arthrology

Study of musculoskeletal movement?

Kinesiology

Class of joint that is freely movable?

Diarthrosis

Class of joint that is slightly movable?

Amphiarthrosis

Class of joint that has little or no movement?

Synarthrosis

Four major joint categories?

Bony, Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial

Immovable joint formed when the gap between two bones ossify and they become a single bone?

Bony Joint

Examples of Bony Joints?

Frontal & Mandibular in Infants & Cranial Sutures & Attachment of 1st Rib & Sternum in Elderly

Point at which adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from one bone, cross the space between them, and then penetrate into the other?

Fibrous Joint

Three types of Fibrous Joints?

Sutures, Gomphoses (Tooth Socket), & Syndesmoses (Interrosseous Membrane)

Three types of Sutures?

Serrate (Wavy) - Coronal, Sagittal, & Lambdoid Sutures, Lap (Overlapping) - Temporal & Parietal Bones, & Plan (Butt) - Palatine Processes of Maxillae

Point where two bones are linked together by cartilage?

Cartilaginous Joint

Two type of Cartilaginous Joints?

Synchondroses (Ribs/Sternum & Epiphyseal Plate) & Symphyses (Pubic Symphysis)

Point where two bones are separated by a space called a joint cavity?

Synovial Joint

Examples of Synovial Joints?

Knee & Shoulder

Saclike extension of joint capsule between nearby structures so they slide more easily past each other?

Bursa

Cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial fluid membrane and wrapped around tendon?

Tendon Sheaths (Modified Bursae)

The degreen through which a joint can move?

Range of Motion (ROM)

ROM is determined by?

Structure of articular surfaces, strength and tautness of ligaments and joint capsules, & actions of the muscles and tendons

Multiaxial Joint?

3 degrees of freedom (Shoulder Joint)

Biaxial Joint?

2 degrees of freedom

Monoaxial Joint?

1 degree of freedom

Six types of Synovial Joints?

Ball-And-Socket (Head of Humerus into Glenoid Cavity), Hinge (Elbow), Saddle (Thumb), Pivot (Dens of Axis), Plane (Carpals & Tarsals), & Condyloid/Ellipsoid (Base of Fingers)

Two ways a person can have more than 206 bones?

Sesamoid Bones (Stress) & Suturial (Wormian) Bones

Type of Sesamoid bone that ossifies at age 3-6?

Patella

Most common abnormal lateral curvature, usually in thoracic region of adolescent girls?

Scoliosis

Exaggerated thoracic curvature, usually from osteoporosis (hunchback)?

Kyphosis

Exaggerated lumbar curvature, usually from obesity or pregnancy (swayback)?

Lordosis

Spaces between unfused bones in infants & children?

Fontanels

Skull reaches adult size by what age?

8-9

Frontal bones fuse at what age?

6 (Metopic Suture)

Gap junctions in the osteon lamellae that allow transport of nutrients and wastes of an osteon to the bloodstream?

Canaliculi

Develop in bone marrow by fusion of stem cells for the purpose of remodeling and breaking down bone tissue?

Osteoclasts

Produces the flat bones of the skull and the clavicle by creating bone tissue on trabeculae and forming marrow cavities; forms spongy bone in the middle of two external layers of compact bone?

Intramembraneous Ossification

Primary and secondary ossification centers produce bones in the hyaline cartilage model; forms long bones like the femur and humerus?

Endochondral Ossification

The hyaline cartilage growth zone of long bones; known as the growth plate?

Epiphyseal Plate

Secreted by C cells of the thyroid gland when calcium levels rise too high; inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts?

Calcitonin

Secreted by the parathyroid gland when blood calcium levels are too low?

PTH

Dynamic tissue for support, protection, movement, blood formation, mineral reservoir, pH balance, etc. - bone tissue?

Osseous Tissue

The outer fibrous layer of collagen fibers that merge with tendons or perforating fibers that penetrate into the bone matrix?

Periosteum

Contained in the shaft (diaphysis) of a long bone to store the fatty, yellow bone marrow in adults?

Medullary Cavity

Space-filled bone formed by rods and plates of bone to provide the skeleton with strength but little weight?

Spongy Bone

Ossified rods and plates found around the marrow cavity in spongy bone?

Trabeculae

The model for endochondral ossification and found at the ends (epiphysis) of long bones after ossification as articular cartilage?

Hyaline Cartilage

The remains of hyaline cartilage on the joint surface; protects the ends of bones at joints?

Articular Cartilage

The tensile strength of these protein fibers allow bone to adapt to tension and compression forces; the organic portion of bone matrix?

Collagen Fibers

The head of a long bone where the red bone marrow would be found; it is covered over by a layer of articular cartilage?

Epiphysis

The inorganic portion of the bone matrix that is crystallized calcium phosphate salt?

Hydroxyapatite

These form and help mineralize the organic matter in bone matrix; they form osteocytes after they become trapped in the matrix they lay down?

Osteoblasts

Most freely movable (diarthrosis) joint; most structurally complex joint?

Synovial Joints

Bones are raised vertically above or lowered; Ex- mandibles during biting and chewing?

Elevation & Depression

Bones that are joined together by hyaline cartilage; costal cartilage of the ribs connected to the sternum?

Synchondrosis

Does not join two bones together, but attaches the tooth to its socket?

Gomphoses

Bony joint that has two bones fused by osseous tissue so they cannot move?

Synostosis

Joint movement in only one plane; a hinge joint?

Monoaxial

Type of joint where there is little or no movement; the bones join so firmly they cannot move?

Synarthrosis

Movement where one end of an appendage is stationary and the other makes a circular motion?

Circumduction

Movement of a body part away from the midline; Ex- raising the arm to the side away from the torso?

Abduction

Rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces the rear?

Pronation

Extending the foot so the toes point downward as in "standing on your tiptoes"?

Plantar Flexion

Joint formed where two bones are joined by a ligament; interosseous membrane at radius/ulna and tibia/fibula?

Syndesmosis

Movement of the body part toward the midsagittal plane; hand moves to left breast for the pledge?

Adduction

A slightly movable joint like the intervertebral discs?

Amphiarthrosis

Decreasing the angle of a joint like bending the elbow or wrist?

Flexion

A fluid filled sac extension of a joint capsule in synovial joints?

Bursa

A monoaxial joint where a convex surface of one bone fits into a concave depression on the other bone; Ex- ulna and humerus, femur and tibia, finger and toe phalanges type of joint?

Hinge Joint

The ability of a bone joint to move in all three planes?

Multiaxial

Joint formed by two bones joined by fibrocartilage; Ex- where the two hip bones joins or the intervertebral discs?

Symphysis

Type of synovial joint where the head of one bone fits into a depression on the other; the shoulder and hip are examples?

Ball-And-Socket Joint

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