Chapter 10

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Jewish monotheism

emphasized the power and abstraction of God

A society is almost certainly a civilization if

it has some political structure

the development of writing

whelps explain why government could become more formal and bureaucratic

Sumerian civilization produced the first

written law code

the development of agriculture caused important changes in all of the following EXCEPT

the tendency to believe in many gods

the Neolithic revolution occurred first in

the Middle East

Egypt differed from Mesopotamian civilization by displaying

well-organized, durable empires

once developed, metal tools were preferred over stone tools for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

they were easier for ordinary people to make at home

which river-valley civilization was all but completely destroyed by invasion

indus

the tenth century BCE refers to

999-900 years before the birth of the Christ

why did the original inhabitants of Australia not develop agriculture

the first Australians were too isolated to learn of developments elsewhere until recently

the Paleolithic Age refers to

the period in which simple stone tools were developed

a characteristic of the human species before the advent of civilization was

the ability to spread to various geographic settings and climate zones

hunting and gathering societies

organize rather small groups into political units

a "dynasty" in Chinese history was

a family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation

one of China's key economic strengths was

high levels of technological innovation

Daoists would disagree with Confucianists on all of the following EXCEPT

the importance of political activitiy

the Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou in that

it was more centralized

Chinese art featured

careful craftsmanship and detail work

Ceremony became an important part of upper-class Chinese life because

the Chinese believe that people should restrain crude impulses

Which of the following was a Confucian belief

a good society has a firm patrilineal hierarchy

one difference between classical civilizations and river-valley civilizations was that in classical civilizations

political organizations were more elaborate

the "son of heaven" concept was designed to promote all of the following EXCEPT

priest's total control of the state

the Chinese government accepted Daoism for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

Daoists believed that nobles were holier than peasants

one difference between classical China and the earlier Hwang Ho river-valley civilization was that in classical China

religious sacrifices were suppressed.

all of the following constituted a function of government in Han China EXCEPT

schools for peasant girls

Compared to a Chinese nobleman, a peasant in classical China differed in all of the following EXCEPT

likelihood of literacy

which of the following were lowest in official Chinese social hierarchy(aside from the "mean people")

merchants

Chinese views or nature emphasized

harmony and balance

if the Greek genius was politics, the Roman genius was

engineering

Greek and Roman agriculture

tended to develop large, commercial estates

the Socratic method emphasized the importance of

questioning

the Senate of republican Rome particularly represented

the landed aristocracy

Roman emperors tried to content the masses by

organizing food supplies and distribution

Hellenistic society registered special advances in

science

Roman slaves were used for all of the following EXCEPT

household care and tutoring

The Roman Empire

set up a military draft to supply the Roman legions

Republican Romans and democratic Athenians would have agreed that all of the following were politically important EXCEPT

proper worship of the gods.

Greek politics resembled Indian politics in

the use of military rulers

from a Confucian viewpoint, the Roman Empire might have been criticized for placing too much confidence in

laws rather than trained officials

compared to Chinese architecture, Greek and Roman architecture

featured monumental styles

Which of the following were the most venturesome sailors in the classical world

Huns

nomadic invaders often had military advantages over the armies of empires because

they were more skilled as horsemen

everywhere it spread, Buddhism stressed

meditation and ethical behavior

the "lessons" of late Han China and the late Roman empire are that the decline of a civilization, whether temporary or permanent,

is not simply the result of attack by outside invaders

the eastern portion of the Roman empire experienced less decline than the west for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

the east resisted the spread of Christianity

Rome's fall can be most attributed to which of the following

lower population totals

despite major differences, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all show interest in

life after death

by 600 CE, an early civilization was beginning to take shape in

Central America

the end of the Gupta empire differed from the decline of the Roman empire in that it did not involve

the introduction of a new religion for the majority

the first kingdoms in Africa below the Sahara showed the influence of

Egypt and Hellenism

compared to Hinduism and Buddhism, all of the following constitute distinctive (unique) features of late-Roman Christianity EXCEPT

belief that an evil life will be punished

the spread of Buddhism to China is an example of

cultural diffusion

after 200 CE, an increasing number of people in Asia, Europe, and North Africa began to adapt faiths characterized by

monotheism

by 600, looking at the entire world, a good definition of "barbarian" would be

someone who is not part of a civilization

compared to Hinduism, Christianity is more likely to

see humans as superior to the rest of nature

Islam means

"submission"

the Arabic camel nomads were referred to as

bedouin

which of the following statements most accurately describes the extent of sedentary agriculture in the Arabian peninsula

in the far south on the Yemen and Hadramaut coasts extensive sedentary agriculture developed in ancient times

which of the following cultures found in the Arabian peninsula was most significant in shaping the development of Islam

bedouin

leaders of bedouin clans were called

shaykhs

which of the following statements concerning inter-clan relationships in bedouin society is most accurate

inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common

what was the result of inter-clan rivalries

it weakened the bedouin in comparison to neighboring peoples and empires

what clan was responsible for the foundation of Mecca

Umayyad

What was the Ka'ba

the religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce

What was the major difference between Medina and Mecca

Political dominance in Medina was ocntested between a number of Jewish and bedouin tribes.

which of the following statements most accurately describes the status of women in bedouin society prior to Islam

women in pre-Islamic bedouin culutre enjoyed greater freedom and higher status than those of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.

what was the nature of pre-Islamic bedouin religion

bedouin religion for most clans was a blend of animism and polytheism focusing on the worship of nature spirits

which of the following represents a mounting pressure for change in pre-Islamic society

greater Byzantine and Sassanian control over Arabic tribes of the peninsula and Arabic migration to Mesopotamia

what was the clan into which Muhammad was born

Banu Hashim

what was the initial response of the Umayyads to Muhammad's new faith

they regarded him as a threat to their wealth and power as he questioned the traditional gods of the Ka'ba

what was the principle advantage of the Islamic concept of the ummah

it transcended old tribal boundaries and made possible political unity among Arab clans

which of the following statements concerning Muhammad's flight to Medina is NOT correct

Muhammad fled from Mecca with nearly one quarter of the city's population

the Umayyads were threatened by all of the following developments EXCEPT

Muhammad's destruction of the Ka'ba

What was Muhammad's teachings with respect to the revelations of other monotheistic religions

Muhammad accepted the validity of earlier Christian and Judaic revelations and taught that his own revelations were a final refinement and reformulation of earlier ones

which of the following was NOT a reason for the decline of the Abbasid dynasty by the ninth century AD

the collapse of the cities

which of the following groups did NOT revolt against Abbasid rule

Sunnis

how did the Caliph al-Mahdi resolve the problem of succession in the Abbasid dynasty

he failed to resolve the problem of dynastic succession with disastrous results

what was the fictional account of life at the court of the Caliph al-Rashid

The thousand and one nights

how did the administration of al-Rashid set a trend for subsequent Abbasid rulers

he was at the outset of his reign heavily dependent on Persian advisers, a practice that became commonplace thereafter

what was the result of the civil wars following the deaht of al-Rashid

candidates for the throne recognized the need to build up personal armies, often of slave soldiers

which of the following statements concerning the mercenary armies of the later Abbasid era is NOT accurate

despite their tendency toward random violence, they loyally defended the Abbasid Caliphs

what accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the Abbasid Empire

spiralling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works, and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction and abandonment of many villages

what was the innovation of the Abbasid court with respect to women

the creation of Islamic nunneries

what was the attitude of the Abbasid's towards the institution of slavery

the Abbasid elite demanded growing numbers of both male and female slaves for concubines and domestic service

why were the practices of seclusion and veiling seen as essential in Islamic society

women were believed to be possessed of insatiable lust from which men had to be protected

which of the following statements concerning women during the Abbasid era is most accurate

women often married at puberty, set at age nine

what was the trend of urbanization during much of the Abbasid Empire

despite political disintegration and a decline in agricultural economy, towns continued to grow rapidly

what was the primary language of the later Abbasid court

Persian

what was the difference between the Islamic invasions of India and previous incursions of the subcontinent

with the Muslims, the peoples of India encountered for the first time a large-scale influx of invaders with a civilization as sophisticated as their own

how did Islam and Hinduism differ

Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system

what was Harsha's religious policy

Harsha remained steadfastly loyal to Hinduism and suppressed the few remaining Buddhist monasteries in his empire

which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct descendant of the Roman Empire

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire lasted from roughly

500-1450

which of the following territories was always part of the Byzantine Empire

Balkans

the significance of the Byzantine Empire included all of the following EXCEPT

the empire's conquest of the Ottoman Empire and its inclusion of all of the Middle East

Which of the following does NOT represent a similarity between the spread of civilization in eastern and western Europe

Northern political units rapidly dominated the political sophistication of civilization areas in Asia and North Africa

what was the difference in the military organization of Byzantine and western Roman Empires

the Byzantine Empire recruited men from the Middle East

the name normally given to the form of Christianity that emerged in the Byzantine Empire was

Orthodox Christianity

what Eastern emperor was responsible for the attempted restoration of a united Roman Empire after 533

Justinian

all of the following were outcomes of Justinian's wars of reconquest EXCEPT

the permanent addition of Rome to the Byzantine Empire

after the seventh century, what group posed the greatest threat to the eastern frontiers of the Byzantine Empire

the Arab Muslims

in which of the following ways were the Byzantine bureaucracy and the Chinese bureaucracy similar

both bureaucracies were open to talented commoners, not just aristocrats

which of the following statements concerning Byzantine military organization is most accurate

the Byzantine Empire recruited troops within the empire by granting heritable land in return for military service

which of the following statements concerning urbanization within the Byzantine Empire is most correct

Constantinople controlled the economy and grew to enormous size, but other cities were relatively small

which of the following statements concerning the merchant class of the Byzantine Empire is most accurate

there was a large and wealthy merchant class in the Byzantine Empire, but it never gained significant political power because of the power of the bureaucracy

the religious controversy over the use of religious images in worhip that broke out in the tenth century was called

the iconoclastic controversy

what two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for Slavic language

Cyril and Methodius

why did Vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism

he believed that Roman Catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by state

which of the following statements concerning the Tatar invasion of Russia is most accurate

Tatar supervision did not destroy Russian Christianity or a native Russian aristocracy

the post-classical period in Western history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the fifteenth century is referred to as the

Middle Ages

in which of the following ways was the medieval West NOT like other civilizations

New religious beliefs accompanied the spread of civilization

which of the following statements concerning the impact of Christianity on polytheistic religions in western Europe is most accurate

the process of conversion produced a religious amalgam in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with Christianity

which of the following was NOT a sign of vitality in the medieval western culture following the Roman Empire's fall

the development of a purely secular society

relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty were called

feudalism

which of the following statements about feudalism is most accurate

although it inhibited the development of strong central states, some kings were able to use feudalism to build their own power

what belief did the conversion of Germanic kings create among western religious leaders, particularly the pope

that the Church had a legitimate authority separate from and superior to the secular rulers

which of the following statements concerning the Holy Roman Empire after the tenth century is most accurate

the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors became increasingly hollow, because they did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations

which of the following did NOT occur as a result of the crusades

the crusaders did not always remain focused on religious goals

Pope Gregory VII decreed the practice of investiture invalid. What was investiture

the practice of state appointment of bishops

the Fourth Crusade was manipulated by merchants in Venice, who turned it into an attack on

Constantinople

what twelfth century monk stressed t he importance of mystical union with God over logic and philosophy

Bernard of Clairvaux

the leading figure in the synthesis of classical rational philosophy with Christian theology was a teacher at the University of Paris in the thirteenth century

Thomas Aquinas

who were the invaders who disrupted the development of political institutions in the medieval West until the tenth century

Vikings

following the fall of Rome, where was the center of the post-classical West

in the central plain of northern Europe- France, the Low Countries, southern and western Germany

the system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers was called

manorialism

which of the following statements concerning the intellectual activity of the medieval West prior to the eighth century is most accurate

Roman scholars achieved more during this period than their Islamic counterparts

because of its base in the universities of western Europe, the dominant medieval philosophical approach was referred to as

scholasticism

medieval backwardness in western Europe accounts for

the inability of the West to establish trade contacts with the larger world commercial network

which of the following was NOT a characteristic of American civilizations during the post-classic period

monotheism

what was the relationship between the Toltecs and their predecessors in central Mexico

the Toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strongly military ethic and human sacrifice

how did the Aztecs view the cultural achievements of the Toltecs

as the givers of civilization

the people who succeeded the Toltecs as the rulers of central Mexico were the

Aztecs

in the period shortly after the arrival of the Aztecs in the valley of Mexico, what was the nature of the political organization of the region

regional kingdoms

what city did the Aztecs establish ca. 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco

Tenochtitlan

which of the following did NOT occur as a result of the Aztec rise to power

the abandonment of human sacrifice

what was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system

from a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a stratified society

which of the following statements concerning Aztec religion is most accurate

shortly after establishing their empire, the Aztecs abandoned all gods other then their patron, Huitzilopochtli

which of the following was NOT one of the major themes or cults of Aztec religion

deities devoted to contemplation and salvation

the central figure of the cult of human sacrifice and the most sacred deity of the Aztecs was

Huitzilopochtli

what was the Aztec view of history

like other Mesoamerican peoples, the Aztecs believed in a cyclical pattern or repetitive destruction of the world

the Aztec innovation in intensive agriculture in the aquatic environments of the lakes of central Mexico was the development of

chinampas

what was the nature of the Aztec economy

the Aztec state redistributed many goods received as tribute, but there was a specialized merchant class that also handled long-distance trade in rare commodities

the image of the Inca empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need is referred to as

Inca socialism

what was the Inca practice of split inheritance

all political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead Inca's mummy

the religious practice most closely associated with the state and person of the Inca in Andean civilization

the sun

which of the following existed in the Aztec empire, but NOT in the Inca empire?

an extensive merchant class

in terms of integration of a centralized empire, how did the Incas and Aztecs compare

the Incas attempted to create an over-arching political state and made conscious attempts to integrate their empire as a unit, while the Aztecs did less in this regard.

the period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-Han era is referred to as the

Era of Division

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