process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements
each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element and mass is conserved
an environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing
Used to describe the amount of light reaching an object, particularly green plants. It is affected by latitude, seasons, shading, cloud cover, etc. It is often a limiting factor in ecosystems.
the strength of a solution
a building with a roof and sides made of glass, used for growing plants that need warmth and protection
A name for a group of flowering plants whose seed typically has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
A loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.
Oblong cells in leaves that are located directly under the upper epidermis and contain chloroplasts
the movement of oxygen into the blood and cells, the movement of carbon dioxide in the reverse direction"
strands of vascular tissue that run the length of the stem
any compound containing the nitrate group (such as a salt or ester of nitric acid)
Obtained from the soil. Used to make chlorophyll. Deficiency causes yellow leaves called chlorsis
the emission of water vapour from the leaves of plants
water in a vaporous form diffused in the atmosphere but below boiling temperature
the amount of water vapour in the air
when leaves and stems droop as result of cells losing water
Causes water to be pulled up the xylem
the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environments
the transport of dissolved material within a plant
Absorbed and circulated by a plant or other organism so as to be lethal to pests that feed on it.
the main source of energy for life on Earth
a thin plate or layer (especially of bone or mineral)
the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf
transports water and organic nutrients
an outer layer of cells designed to provide protection
cuticle(of a leaf)
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing.
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
the layer of cells in a leaf where most photosynthesis occurs
Moist, loosely packed layer of cells containing chloroplasts.
Lipids that are liquid at room temperature
non woody plants with a soft stem
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid
sieve tube elements
found in phloem; stacked end to end; have holes so materials can get in and out of the phloem
An end wall in a sieve-tube member, which facilitates the flow of phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubes.
thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root
The device used to measure the amount of transpiration occurring from a plant
The rate at which water vapour is lost from a plant