Intro to Life Span ch 8 Quiz

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a. industry versus inferiority

What is Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development?
a. industry versus inferiority
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. identity versus role confusion
d. initiative versus guilt

d. lower impulsive aggression.

Researchers conducted an eight-year study on Native American families receiving income from a new casino. The 200 children who were lifted out of poverty showed:
a. increased stress.
b. higher aggression.
c. more problems in school.
d. lower impulsive aggression.

b. the child experiences self-blame.

According to a recent study of childhood stress, a parental conflict can lead to internalizing behavior when:
a. marital discord is high.
b. the child experiences self-blame.
c. the child is especially sensitive to stress.
d. the family lives in poverty.

b. learn how to get along with peers.

Psychosocially, one of the most important tasks of a middle-school child is to:
a. develop a mild temperament.
b. learn how to get along with peers.
c. learn how to obey parents and teachers.
d. develop good study habits.

a. they may spout curses, accents, and slang.

A characteristic of the culture of children is that:
a. they may spout curses, accents, and slang.
b. attitudes toward parents improve.
c. children tend to make higher grades in school.
d. ethnic and racial prejudices are prevalent.

b. some children are well liked, others aren't, and those in both groups change over time.

Research on social acceptance among children indicates that:
a. all children are well liked at some point during their middle-school years.
b. some children are well liked, others aren't, and those in both groups change over time.
c. some children are well liked, others aren't, and once acceptance is determined, it remains constant.
d. culture does not affect the social acceptance among children.

a. social cognition.

The ability to understand human interactions is called:
a. social cognition.
b. effortful control.
c. latency.
d. resilience.

a. aggressive-rejected child.

Rita, who is unpopular among her peers, frequently ridicules and antagonizes other children. Her behavior suggests that she is a(n):
a. aggressive-rejected child.
b. withdrawn-rejected child.
c. neglected child.
d. aggressive-withdrawn child.

d. bullying

Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person is the definition of:
a. intolerant social functioning.
b. aggressive-rejection.
c. harassment.
d. bullying.

d. peers, parents, and culture.

Research has shown that children develop their own standards of right and wrong, guided by:
a. peers only.
b. parents only.
c. culture only.
d. peers, parents, and culture.

b. Kohlberg.

The theorist associated with the six stages of moral reasoning is:
a. Piaget.
b. Kohlberg.
c. Erikson.
d. Freud.

b. inferior

According to Erikson, if 8-year-old Kristina does NOT solve her psychosocial conflict of stage four, she will come to view herself as:
a. self-regulating.
b. inferior.
c. industrious.
d. competent.

a. in middle childhood.

Civic sense and virtue begins:
a. in middle childhood.
b. prior to middle childhood.
c. in adolescence.
d. in adulthood.

d. latency.

Freud referred to middle childhood as the period of:
a. crisis.
b. industry.
c. inferiority.
d. latency.

b. social comparison.

The tendency to assess one's own abilities by measuring them against those of other people, especially peers, is:
a. self-criticism.
b. social comparison.
c. self-concept.
d. social evaluation.

d. resilience.

The capacity to develop optimally by adapting positively to significant adversity is called:
a. self-esteem.
b. stability.
c. industry.
d. resilience.

c. family function

The way in which a family works to meet the needs of its members is referred to as:
a. family structure.
b. family stability.
c. family function.
d. extended family.

c. nuclear

The most common type of family structure for U.S. children aged 6-11 is:
a. stepparent.
b. blended.
c. nuclear.
d. single-parent.

c. low income and low stability

According to your text, two factors that significantly interfere with family function in every nation are:
a. homosexuality and divorce.
b. cohabitation and low income.
c. low income and low stability.
d. financial stress and lack of marital commitment.

c. dysfunctional

A family that does not support all its members is called:
a. extended.
b. socially inept.
c. dysfunctional.
d. polygamous.

d. attempt to master many skills.

During Erikson's crisis of industry versus inferiority, children:
a. repress their psychosexual needs.
b. require more adult supervision.
c. do poorly academically.
d. attempt to master many skills.

c. have lower school achievement.

Children in U.S. military families move often and:
a. have fewer emotional problems.
b. have higher achievement in school.
c. have lower school achievement.
d. show no difference in achievement level.

a. feel lonely if he blames himself for his parents' fights

Ten-year-old Julian's parents frequently yell and argue. He will more likely:
a. feel lonely if he blames himself for his parents' fights.
b. excel in school if he blames himself for his parents' fights.
c. be troubled if he doesn't take some responsibility for his parents' discord.
d. not be affected by the lack of harmony even though he blames himself for his parents' discord.

d. young children's egocentrism makes them less affected by other children's acceptance or rejection of them.

The difference in the psychosocial development of young children as compared to that of middle-school children is that:
a. young children are able to make friends much more easily than middle-school children are.
b. middle-school children allow their egocentrism to affect their friendships.
c. middle-school children are not aware of other children's acceptance or rejection of them.
d. young children's egocentrism makes them less affected by other children's acceptance or rejection of them.

c. gender stereotypes and gender segregation are strongly maintained.

One interesting aspect of the culture of children is that:
a. racial and ethnic prejudice is prevalent during the school years.
b. a sense of fairness and justice is too elaborate during the school years.
c. gender stereotypes and gender segregation are strongly maintained.
d. learning a second language is difficult.

b. kind and cooperative.

According to research, the most popular young children are:
a. funny and energetic.
b. kind and cooperative.
c. kind and hard-working.
d. shy and kind.

b. the ability to understand social interactions.

"Social cognition" refers to:
a. the measure of popularity.
b. the ability to understand social interactions.
c. the ability to modify impulses and emotions.
d. how resilient a child is.

b. withdrawn-rejected.

A child who is rejected by peers because of timid and anxious behavior is referred to as:
a. aggressive-rejected.
b. withdrawn-rejected.
c. neglected.
d. disliked-rejected.

b. repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm a weaker person.

Characteristics of bullying are:
a. isolated attacks and insults among children.
b. repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm a weaker person.
c. aggressive, playful attacks on one's best friend.
d. occasional insults and fights.

a. more

Generally, children are ___________ likely to behave prosocially in middle school than earlier.
a. more
b. no more
c. less
d. not as

c. with a punishment and obedience orientation.

Kohlberg would expect a child whose thought processes are egocentric to display moral reasoning:
a. with a "law and order" orientation.
b. at the conventional level.
c. with a punishment and obedience orientation.
d. consistent with concrete operational thought.

b. Marisol can't wait to begin her first karate class.

Identify the typical child in Erikson's fourth stage, the crisis of industry versus inferiority:
a. Jill avoids learning new skills.
b. Marisol can't wait to begin her first karate class.
c. John has difficulty making friends.
d. Gustavo is struggling with his identity.

c. parents.

Civic sense is influenced most by the examples of:
a. schools.
b. peers.
c. parents.
d. media.

a. latency stage

During the ______, Freud believed that children's emotional drives and psychosocial needs are quiet.
a. latency stage
b. phallic stage
c. genital stage
d. industry stage

a. social comparison

School-age children tend to be aware of their classmates' opinions, judgments, and accomplishments. This development enables school-age children to engage in:
a. social comparison.
b. the culture of children.
c. social efficacy.
d. peer rejection.

b. Resilience is dynamic.

Which of the following is TRUE of resilience?
a. Resilience is a stable trait.
b. Resilience is dynamic.
c. Resilience is defined as the absence of pathology.
d. A child experiencing minor stressors is considered resilient.

b. love and encouragement.

According to your text, the most important overall family function is to provide:
a. exposure to religious functions.
b. love and encouragement.
c. a two-parent support system for siblings.
d. All of these answers are equally important.

a. nuclear family.

A family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children younger than age 18 is referred to as a:
a. nuclear family.
b. extended family.
c. blended family.
d. polygamous family.

d. Hispanic fathers

According to your text, if divorce occurs, who is LEAST likely to stay actively involved with their children?
a. Asian fathers
b. European American fathers
c. African American fathers
d. Hispanic fathers

d. family-stress

The __________ model examines crucial questions about the effect of risk factors (poverty, divorce, job loss) on the family.
a. stress
b. high-risk
c. risk-stress
d. family-stress

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