Fluid Accumulation in the Peritoneal Cavity. People with liver disease produce reduced levels of albumin resulting in water leaking out of blood vessels into the abdominal cavity.
Maintains Homeostasis - Good =D
Keeps body conditions within normal range
Drastic Changes - Bad D=
Often fatal as in the case of Cardiogenic Shock
Sometimes useful, as in the case of Labor or Birth
ATP- Energy source for all cell reactions
Energy source for all cell reactions
Energy in ATP comes from the 3 Phosphate bounds - ATP, ADP, AMP
Cells can store energy by adding Phosphates to AMP and ADP to make ATP.
Proteins are produced by cells and differ in their function according to their shape wide variety of protein functions: Signaling Proteins, Structural Proteins, Proteins with immune system functions... Etc.
Denatural proteins are proteins whose shape has been destroyed and no longer functional.
The molecule that contains all of our genetic information.
Consists of a Phospholipical bilayer that is selectively permeable
controls what goes in & out of cell
The movement of molecules from a high concentration to a lower concentration
Diffusion of just water
Diffusion of just solids (Proteins... Etc.)
has a higher concentration of water than the cell
has a lower concentration of water than the cell
Has the same water concentration as the cell
Ex. IV fluids need to be isotonic
Median or Center
Feet > Hands > Head
Arms & Legs
Head > Hands > Feet
Arms & Legs
Cut through the muscle
Levels of Structure
Molecules > Cells > Tissues > Organs > Organ System > Whole body
Transverse of Cross Section
Back & Front
Down the spine
Left & Right
Para - Sagital
3 Unequal Sections
Vertical or Spinal Cavity
All organs below the lungs
Prevents friction and allows organs to move easily within their cavities.
Lines the organs surface
Lines the Cavities surface
Membrane touching the Organ
Membrane touching the cavity
Visceral Pleura & Parietal Pleura
Membranes around the Lungs
Visceral Pericardium & Parietal Pericardium
Membranes around the Heart
Visceral Peritonieum & Parietal Peritonieum
Membranes around the Abdomen
Inflammation from trauma or infection
Inflates the Pericardial cavity with excess fluid
heart is squeezed and cannot refill
Death occurs unless a needle is used to remove the excess fluid from the pericardial cavity
Results from infection - Ruptured Appendix. Pelvic Inflammatory disease Etc.
Causes abdominal organs to become adhesive which makes them stick together
Causes septic shock
Cells nucleus contains DNA
Cell division without genetic recombination
The process of mitosis creates a new cells needed for growth and replaces older cells that are no longer functional
Takes about 7 hours
in healthy cells, it only occurs when needed
Majority of Cells life is spent here
Cell begins the process of division
1. Chromosomes condenses & become visible
2. Nuclear envelope disappears, Nuclear envelope is the membrane around nucleus
3. The mitotic spindles begin to form. These are the rope like structures which will pull the chromosomes apart
Second Stage of Mitosis
a short resting period where the chromosomes are lined up along the mid-line of the cell, with chromosomes at opposite ends of the mitotic spindle is fully formed
the sister chromatids of each chromosome divide
the mitotic spindle fibers contract and the chromosomes are pulled
Entire cell divides
chromosomes are at the poles of the spindle
nuclear envelope reforms around the 2 sets of chromosomes
cytoplasm is divided into 2 separate cells through the process of cytokinesis.
a form of uncontrolled mitosis
P53 intact and sends signal but the other gene doesn't respond or it loses P53.
Cut it out or radiation or chemicals to kill actively dividing cells.
Muscle & Nerve Tissue
Very little replacement in adults
Problematic because heart tissue that becomes damaged during a heart attack or brain tissue that becomes damaged during a stroke is not replaced.
Protection against UV
Waterproofs the body
Temp regulation - Blood flow to the skin
Vitamin D synthesis
Sensation of touch, temp, and pain
Highest level of skin
basal cell skin cancer originates in the stratum basal
stratum basal vulnerable to UV radiation
Has no blood vessels
Middle level of skin
thick layer below epidermis
blood vessels and nerves
2 kinds of protein fiber
- Collagen fibers provide strength
- Elastin fibers provide strength and flexibility
Elastin is destroyed by age, UV, smoking, resulting in wrinkles
Bottom level of skin
Made of dead cells that are full of Keratin, a protein that helps waterproof the cells.
Produce oil, protect skin, attached to hair follicles, can cause infections.
Produce sweat that helps the body thermooregulate, found all over body
Produce chemical odors, pheromous, found under arm region
Muscles that move hair
Basal Cell Cancer
Most common in light skinned people
Can be treated by cutting off or Freezing
Squamous Skin Cancer
2nd most common type
May metastasize if not removed
Can be difficult to cure
Rarest but most deadly
B= Rough Border
C= Uneven Color
D= Diameter larger than a pencil eraser
1st Degree burn
Limited to epidermis
2nd Degree Burn
Extends into Dermis
Causes blistering, redness and burn
3rd Degree Burn
Destroys skin at burn site, nerves and blood vessels are gone.
Edges are very painful even though burn area has no sensation
Skin grafts are necessary to allow healing of the burned area
Necessary for calcium absorption
Lack of Vitamin D results in deformed, soft bones
Red blood cells
Made in bone marrow
Live 120 days
White blood Cells
Help with blood clotting
High levels of protein Albumin
Plasma with the Clotting proteins removed
Signals the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Results from a lack of Dietary Iron
Can be remedied with iron supplements
Liver accumulates too much iron
Can cause liver failure
Treated by regular blood draws
Occurs when Red blood marrow is damaged by radiation, chemicals or cancer and stops production
Occurs when digestive tract can not absorb Vitamin B12.
Treated with oral B12 or injections
Sickle Cell Anemia
Results from genetic disorder. Both parents must be carriers
Sickle red blood cells wear out fast and block blood vessels.
Hemoglobin binds to Oxygen and carries it to cells of the body.
Iron is necessary for Hemoglobin to function Correctly.
Liver pulls it out of blood and turns it into bile
Gall bladder secretes bile into the small intestine.
If the liver stops working, could result in Jaundice.
Killer T Lymphocytes
Helper T lymphocytes
Most common type of White Blood Cell.
Live for 3 days
Use phagocytosis to engulf foreign particles and bacteria
Low levels of neutrophils
Second most common type of White Blood Cell
Produce Antibodies which protect you from infection
Killer T Lymphocytes
Attack Cancer Cells
Attack viruses and kill virus-infected cells
Helper T Lymphocytes
Activate B and Killer T lymphocytes
Cancer of the Bone Marrow
Uncontrolled production of abnormal White Blood Cells
A higher than normal white blood cell count
can happen when the body is fighting an infection.
Low white blood cell count
Blood Clotting, 3 steps: Vascular spasm, Platelet plug, Coagulation
1. Tissue Damage
2. Vascular Spasm-blood vessels squeeze shut as much as they can to reduce blood loss
Prevents prothrombin activator from turning prothrombin into thrombin.
Fast acting and is often used medically to stop blood from clotting.
Stops the liver from using vitamin K to make prothrombin.
Takes a longer time to work and is often given to patients at risk of strokes or who have had a stroke in the past.
X-linked disorder, more common in boys.
Treated with injections of factor 8 which these patients cannot make and is necessary in the formation of blood clots
A blood clot in the wrong place
A clot that stays where it formed
A clot that moves in the blood and is very dangerous
Deep vein thrombosis occurs when blood stagnates in the legs causing clots and pain. if it breaks off and becomes an embolus it is very dangerous.
Determined by carbohydrate markers found on the surface of blood cells
Type A Blood
cells with type A antigens on the surface of their blood cells. Has Anti-B antibodies in their plasma
Type B Blood
Cells with Type B antigens on the surface of their blood cells. Has Anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
Type AB Blood
cells with both A and B antigens on the surface of their blood cells. Has no antibodies in their plasma.
Type O Blood
Cells with no antigens present on the surface of their blood cells. Has both A and B antibodies in their plasma.
a blood group antigen possessed by Rh-positive people