DMIS 1131: class 2 veins

24 terms by cole1321 

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IVC obstruction renal vein enlargement renal vein thrombosis venous aneurysms portal venous abnormalities portosystemic shunts

With an IVC obstruction, increase in caliper will be where?

below the point of obstruction

What are the most common causes of IVC obstruction?

right heart failure
enlarged liver
lymph node enlargement

What can be placed in the IVC to prevent a clot from moving to the heart?

filter

Sonographically, fresh clots appear how?

sonolucent

Sonographically, older clots appear more what?

hemorrhagic
hyperechoic (brighter)

Tumors in the IVC are most often caused by what?

metastases

Sonographically, a tumor will appear as what?

echogenic FOCI IN VESSEL

What causes renal vein enlargement?

portal hypertension
thrombosis
tumor

What is used exclusively to sonographically evaluate the renal veins?

doppler

Although rare, venous aneurysms occur primarily where?

neck & lower extremities
portal vein

Portal vein aneurysms are caused by what?

pancreatitis
portal vein hypertension
congenital

Which vein on the upper portion of the main portal vein is not commonly seen on ultrasound?

umbilical vein

What can cause portal vein thrombosis?

portal hypertension
inflammation from an abdominal process
appendicitis/pancreatitis
surgery

What are the clinical signs of portal vein thrombosis?

pain
low grade fever
nausea
leukocytosis

Sonographically, how can a portal vein thrombosis be detected?

clot in vessel
collateral circulation
unable to visualize portal vein

An increase in portal venous pressure resulting in the vein measuring >13 mm is considered what?

portal hypertension

What causes portal hypertension?

fatty infiltration of the liver
inflammation (from alcoholism/cirrhosis)

What are the clinic signs of portal hypertension?

ascites
GI bleeding

What is the treatment for portal hypertension?

transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)

What is TIPS?

metal stent placed between a hepatic vein & intrahepatic portal vein to the jugular vein (usually the right veins)

What can be seen sonographically when a patient has been treated with a TIPS?

a bright white-echogenic tubular structure between the portal and hepatic veins

What complications can arise from TIPS?

occlusion
stenosis

When are arterial/venous shunts & fistulas commonly placed?

dialysis (treating kidney disease)
biopsy of kidney or femoral artery

What can be sonographically visualized when arterial/venous shunts & fistulas are placed?

turbulent/swirling of blood on color doppler

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