With an IVC obstruction, increase in caliper will be where?
below the point of obstruction
What are the most common causes of IVC obstruction?
right heart failure
lymph node enlargement
What can be placed in the IVC to prevent a clot from moving to the heart?
Sonographically, fresh clots appear how?
Sonographically, older clots appear more what?
Tumors in the IVC are most often caused by what?
Sonographically, a tumor will appear as what?
echogenic FOCI IN VESSEL
What causes renal vein enlargement?
What is used exclusively to sonographically evaluate the renal veins?
Although rare, venous aneurysms occur primarily where?
neck & lower extremities
Portal vein aneurysms are caused by what?
portal vein hypertension
Which vein on the upper portion of the main portal vein is not commonly seen on ultrasound?
What can cause portal vein thrombosis?
inflammation from an abdominal process
What are the clinical signs of portal vein thrombosis?
low grade fever
Sonographically, how can a portal vein thrombosis be detected?
clot in vessel
unable to visualize portal vein
An increase in portal venous pressure resulting in the vein measuring >13 mm is considered what?
What causes portal hypertension?
fatty infiltration of the liver
inflammation (from alcoholism/cirrhosis)
What are the clinic signs of portal hypertension?
What is the treatment for portal hypertension?
transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)
What is TIPS?
metal stent placed between a hepatic vein & intrahepatic portal vein to the jugular vein (usually the right veins)
What can be seen sonographically when a patient has been treated with a TIPS?
a bright white-echogenic tubular structure between the portal and hepatic veins
What complications can arise from TIPS?
When are arterial/venous shunts & fistulas commonly placed?
dialysis (treating kidney disease)
biopsy of kidney or femoral artery
What can be sonographically visualized when arterial/venous shunts & fistulas are placed?
turbulent/swirling of blood on color doppler