2 or more different types of atoms joined in a specific ratio.
force that holds 2 atoms together due to interaction of electrons.
NA+ and CL- are attracted to each other because of their
electrons are "shared" between atoms.
atoms in compund that equally share because of same electronegativity, neither atom is stronger.
atoms in the compund that share their electrons unequally because one has greater electronegativity, one atom is stronger.
liquid dissolving a solid
the solid gets dissolved
the liquid that dissolves the solid
water attracted to other water molecules
Water molecules at suface attracted to eachother
water attracted to other charged molecules
water moves up a tube because of its attraction to the charged molecules inside the tube and cohesion
Adhesion in plants
Roots, Stems, leaves
High specific (Heat Capacity)
amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree.
pH scale from 0-7, H+
pH scale from 7-14, OH-
chemicals making the pH stable
Most common elements found in humans
O, C, H, N (Oxygen, Carbon, Hyrogen, and Nitrogen)
study of carbon compunds
Carbon has _ valence electrons
large molcules made of repeating subunits.
small units that make up a polymer
another name for macromolecules, monomers put together
When monomers make up a Polymer
Condensation (dehydration) synthesis
4 goups of macromolecules found in living things
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Not food: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Cabohydrate elements and ratio
C : H : O :: 1 : 2 : 1
polymers of carbs
C, H, O
polar, dissolves easily in water
nonpolar, don't dissolve in water
Types of lipids
fats, oils, waxes, steroids.
Nucleic Acids elements
C, H, O, P, N
3 parts of a nucleotide
pentose ( 5-C sugar), nitrogenous base ("N" base), posphate froup (PO4-)
Nucleic Acids importance to living things
store and transmit genetic info
Two types of nucleic acids
C, H, O, N
Protein 2 functional groups
amino group (-NH2), carboxyl group (-COOH)
bonds between amino acids.
gets reactions started
carry messages throughout body
form bones, feathers, muscles, etc.
Molecules into & out of cells
Store or Release
Level of organization of a protein
correct amiino acids sequence, fold/twist, more folding/twisting, join with other amino acids chains
Biomolecules: Polysaccharide (carbohydrate)
glyceral/ 3 fatty acids
Biomolecules: Nucleic Acid
changing one molecule
the chemicals that react/start the reaction
the chemicals that result fromthe reaction
Energy is always
Abosrobed or released
Energy is needed to get reaction started*
Energy is need to get reaction started
the energy needed to get a reaction going, common source: heat
special type of protein
increases reaction rate
Lock and Key
Enzymes and Substrates, Lactase and Lactose
monomer +monomer = polymer + water
polymer + water = monomer + monomer