CH4: Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells

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136 terms · Microbiology: An Introduction 11th edition Tortora

You have isolated a cell with a peptidoglycan cell wall. What other structure can you safely assume the cell has?

A. a mitochondrion
B. a chloroplast
C. a nucleus
D. a plasma membrane

a plasma membrane

You are observing a Gram stain of rectangular-shaped microorganisms that are linked in a chain and stain purple. How would you describe these bacteria using the correct terminology for the cell shape and arrangement?

A. gram-positive coccobacilli
B. gram-positive streptobacilli
C. gram-positive tetrads
D. gram-negative staphylococci

gram-positive streptobacilli

A Gram stain of a wound reveals purple, spherical-shaped bacteria that divide and remain attached in grapelike clusters. These are referred to as __________.

A. gram-positive staphylococci
B. gram-positive tetrads
C. gram-positive streptococci
D. gram-negative spirochetes

gram-positive staphylococci

Which of the following statements does NOT provide evidence for the endosymbiotic theory?

A. The ribosomes contained within mitochondria and chloroplasts are very similar to prokaryotic ribosomes.
B. Prokaryotes contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
C. The same antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis in prokaryotes also inhibit protein synthesis within mitochondria and chloroplasts.
D. Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain circular DNA, similar to the DNA in prokaryotes.

Prokaryotes contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

Which of the following statements about a gram-negative cell wall is FALSE?

A. It contains teichoic acid.
B. It maintains the shape of the cell.
C. It functions as an endotoxin.
D. It includes a thin layer of peptidoglycan.

It contains teichoic acid.

Which of the following processes uses membrane proteins that act as channels or carriers allowing ions or large molecules to move across the plasma membrane without using energy?

A. active transport
B. simple diffusion
C. facilitated diffusion
D. osmosis

facilitated diffusion

Which of the following bacterial structures is necessary for chemotaxis?

A. flagella
B. plasmids
C. metachromatic granules
D. capsules

flagella

Which of the following statements is true?

A. One bacterial cell produces many endospores.
B. Endospores allow a cell to attach to solid surfaces and to surfaces within the host.
C. Endospores are extremely durable structures that can survive high temperatures.
D. Endospores are reproductive structures.

Endospores are extremely durable structures that can survive high temperatures.

Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?

A. Golgi complex--membrane formation and secretion of proteins
B. lysosomes--secretion
C. centrioles--cellular respiration
D. mitochondrion--cell division

Golgi complex--membrane formation and secretion of proteins

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the glycocalyx found in bacteria?

A. creates a slimy, slippery coating that prevents bacteria form attaching to surfaces
B. if firmly attached, contributes to bacterial virulence
C. a structure that can be visualized by negative staining
D. a viscous coating surrounding the cell made of polysaccharide, polypeptide, or both

creates a slimy, slippery coating that prevents bacteria form attaching to surfaces

Which of the following eukaryotic cells do NOT contain a cell wall?

A. animals
B. plants
C. algae
D. fungi

animals

In a prokaryotic cell, all of the following are functions of either the fimbriae or pili EXCEPT __________.

A. transfer of DNA
B. movement
C. formation of biofilms
D. attachment to a surface

movement

Which of the following membrane transport mechanisms takes place in eukaryotic cells but NOT in prokaryotic cells?

A. endocytosis
B. active transport
C. facilitated diffusion
D. osmosis

endocytosis

Within the cytoplasm of bacterial cells are reserve deposits where certain nutrients accumulate. These are called __________.

A. vacuoles
B. inclusions
C. ribosomes
D. lysosomes

inclusions

The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell differs from the nucleoid of a prokaryotic cell in all of the following ways EXCEPT which one?

A. The prokaryotic nucleoid usually contains a single circular chromosome, whereas the eukaryotic nucleus contains multiple linear chromosomes.
B. The eukaryotic nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope. There is no envelope surrounding the prokaryotic nucleoid.
C. The prokaryotic nucleoid contains DNA combined with histones. Histones are lacking in the eukaryotic nucleus.
D. The eukaryotic nucleus contains nucleoli. There are no nucleoli in the prokaryotic nucleoid.

The prokaryotic nucleoid contains DNA combined with histones. Histones are lacking in the eukaryotic nucleus.

Which of the following is true of bacteria that have atypical cell walls, such as those in the genus Mycoplasma?

A. These atypical bacteria usually stain gram-negative.
B. Although small, these atypical bacteria cannot pass through most filters.
C. Bacteria with atypical cell walls are generally among the smallest bacteria that can reproduce outside a host cell.
D. These atypical bacteria have the same plasma membrane typical of bacteria.

Bacteria with atypical cell walls are generally among the smallest bacteria that can reproduce outside a host cell.

Which of the following statements about ribosomes is FALSE?

A. Cells with a high rate of protein synthesis have large numbers of ribosomes.
B. All eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells contain ribosomes.
C. Antibiotics that interfere with protein synthesis harm both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes.
D. Eukaryotic ribosomes are larger (80S) than prokaryotic ribosomes (70S).

Antibiotics that interfere with protein synthesis harm both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes.

Which of the following is matched correctly?

A. protoplast--a genus of bacteria that typically do not have cell walls
B.spheroplast--gram-negative bacteria that are exposed to lysozyme but retain some of the outer membrane
C. Mycoplasma spp.--bacteria that spontaneously, or in response to penicillin or lysozyme, partially lose their cell walls and swell into irregularly shaped bacteria that divide and metabolize and may regain their cell wall
D. L form--a wall-less bacterium created by the action of lysozyme; the plasma membrane remains intact, and the cell carries on metabolism.

spheroplast--gram-negative bacteria that are exposed to lysozyme but retain some of the outer membrane

Spirochetes and spirilla are both spiral-shaped bacteria. However, they differ in that spirochetes have __________ and spirilla do not.

A. fimbriae
B. endoflagella (axial filaments)
C. N-acetylglucosamine
D. peritrichous flagella

endoflagella (axial filaments)

Penicillin specifically interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis. Which of the following cells is most likely to be damaged by penicillin?

A. human cells
B. yeast cells
C. cells of archaea
D. gram-positive bacterial cells

gram-positive bacterial cells

Which of the following is a difference between gram-positive and gram-negative cells?

A. Only gram-negative cells have a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer.
B. Only gram-positive cells have peptidoglycan that is made of a carbohydrate backbone.
C. Gram-negative cell walls contain teichoic acids.
D. Gram-positive cells contain less peptidoglycan than do gram-negative cells.

Only gram-negative cells have a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer.

What statement most accurately describes the structure of the plasma membrane?

A. Peripheral proteins span the membrane.
B. The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic phosphate groups oriented toward the inside and outside of the cell.
C. The lipid portion of the bilayer is hydrophilic.
D. The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic phosphate groups oriented toward one another.

The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic phosphate groups oriented toward the inside and outside of the cell

Which of the following statements is true regarding the principles of osmosis?

A. The relative concentrations of solutes inside and outside the cell have no influence on the direction of osmosis.
B. If a cell is a hypotonic solution, water leaves the cell in an attempt to balance to concentration of solutes and reach equilibrium.
C. If a cell is a hypertonic solution, water leaves the cell in an attempt to balance to concentration of solutes and reach equilibrium.
D. If a cell is in an isotonic solution, no water moves across the membrane because equilibrium has been reached.

If a cell is a hypertonic solution, water leaves the cell in an attempt to balance to concentration of solutes and reach equilibrium.

During endospore formation, ________.

A. the only DNA that is copied contains the genes necessary for germination
B. the cell is experiencing a great deal of metabolic activity
C. a thick spore coat forms around the forespore before the endospore is released into the environment
D. the population of bacterial cells doubles

a thick spore coat forms around the forespore before the endospore is released into the environment

Which of the following statements is false?

A. Plant cells have a cell wall, while animal cells do not have a cell wall.
B. Plant cells do not have mitochondria.
C. Both plant and animal cells have nuclei, which house just about all of the eukaryotic cell's DNA.
D. Plant cells contain the organelles to carry out photosynthesis.

Plant cells do not have mitochondria.

Consider a gram-positive cell in a hypertonic medium. If the peptidoglycan were damaged, the cell would _____.

shrink, plasmolyze, collapse

The motility of bacteria with flagella occurs through a series of "runs" and _____.

tumbles

The term describing bacteria with flagella distributed over the entire surface of the cell is _____ .

peritrichous

Short, prokaryotic appendages made up of pilin are called pili. Special pili involved in the transfer of DNA from one cell to another are called ______.

conjugation pili

In a phospholipid bilayer, water interacts with the ______ of the phospholipid molecules.

polar heads, hydrophilic heads

When essential nutrients are depleted, some strains of bacteria form ______, dormant structures that form within cells.

endospores

Compared to other bacteria, mycoplasmas are somewhat atypical because they do not have a _______.

cell wall

Many pathogenic (disease-producing) bacteria have _______ that protect them from phagocytosis by host cells.

capsules

Condensed regions of chromosomes in eukaryotes where rRNA is synthesized are called ______ .

nucleoli

Endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes attached to its outer surface is referred to as ______ .

rough ER

Which of the following is not a functionally analogous pair?

A. circular bacterial chromosome; -linear eukaryotic chromosomes
B. pili; centrioles
C. peptidoglycan; cellulose
D. bacterial flagella; 9 + 2 flagella
E. 70S ribosomes; 80S ribosomes

pili; centrioles

Polyphosphate (volutin), carboxysomes, and magnetosomes are examples of ________.

A. mesosomes
B. fimbriae
C. inclusion bodies
D. chloroplasts
E. capsules

inclusion bodies

The antibiotic polymyxin B combines with phospholipids. This will cause ________.

A. leakage of cell contents
B. sporulation
C. stoppage of protein synthesis
D. binary fission
E. loss of motility

leakage of cell contents

Chemotaxis refers to the ability of microorganisms to ________.

A. move in a wavelike motion
B. escape phagocytosis
C. move toward or away from chemical stimuli
D. attach to solid surfaces
E. survive under adverse conditions

move toward or away from chemical stimuli

All of the following are found in the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria except ________.

A. lipid A
B. teichoic acid
C. peptidoglycan
D. N-acetylglucosamine
E. lipoteichoic acid

lipid A

Gram-negative cells contain a periplasmic space that is ________.

A. filled with lysozyme
B. a site of endocytosis
C. rich in degradative enzymes
D. abundant in photosynthetic pigments
E. the site of protein synthesis

rich in degradative enzymes

All of the following are true of the gram-negative outer membrane except:

A. It has polysaccharide antigens that are useful in bacterial identification.
B. It contains lipopolysaccharide.
C. It contains lipids also known as endotoxin.
D. It contains enzymes for energy synthesis.
E. It is a part of the gram-negative cell wall

It contains enzymes for energy synthesis.

The plasma membrane is considered a barrier to the environment because ________.

A. only water and small molecules may penetrate the membrane
B. the membrane is the outermost structure of the cell
C. it controls the passage of molecules into the cell
D. it is a rigid structure
E. no molecules may pass through it

it controls the passage of molecules into the cell

Which of the following is a likely outcome, based on the unique cell structure of members of the genus Mycoplasma?

A. Mycoplasma species are susceptible to disruption by lysozymes.
B. Mycoplasma species can release endotoxins when they lyse.
C. Mycoplasma species have very flexible cells that can pass through bacteriologic filters.
D. Mycoplasma species are susceptible to penicillin.
E. Mycoplasma species usually stain gram-positive.

Mycoplasma species have very flexible cells that can pass through bacteriologic filters.

A population of bacterial cells has been placed in a very nutrient-poor environment with extremely low concentrations of sugars and amino acids. Which kind of membrane transport becomes crucial in this environment?

A. osmosis
B. facilitated diffusion
C. active transport
D. simple diffusion
E. pinocytosis

active transport

What will occur if a bacterial cell with a weakened or damaged cell wall is placed in pure water?

A. The cell will form endospores.
B. The cell will form a new cell wall.
C. The cell will remain the same size.
D. The cell will shrink.
E. The cell will swell and burst

The cell will swell and burst

Which of the following processes occurs in bacterial plasma membranes, but not in eukaryotic plasma membranes?

A. ATP synthesis
B. protein synthesis
C. facilitated diffusion
D. RNA synthesis
E. active transport

ATP synthesis

Why is penicillin selectively toxic to bacterial cells but harmless to human cells?

A. The glycocalyx of an animal cell provides a barrier through which penicillin cannot pass.
B. Penicillin is rapidly metabolized and destroyed by human cells.
C. Human cells actively transport penicillin out of the cell.
D. Penicillin is inactivated within lysosomes of human cells.
E. Penicillin specifically weakens peptidoglycan, which is found only in bacterial cells.

Penicillin specifically weakens peptidoglycan, which is found only in bacterial cells.

Bacillus anthracis causes the deadly disease anthrax. Organisms of the genus Bacillus may form endospores. This bacterium would be suitable for biological warfare because endospores ________.

A. have a high concentration of calcium ions
B. are difficult to stain
C. are centrally located within the bacterial cells
D. are multilayered structures
E. are resistant to high temperatures, UV light, and desiccation

are resistant to high temperatures, UV light, and desiccation

Assume you are growing a bacterial culture in a glucose medium. Your lab partner adds more glucose in hopes of speeding up the experiment. The bacteria suddenly die. The best explanation for this result is that ________.

A. the bacteria could not use glucose
B. the cells plasmolyzed
C. osmotic lysis occurred
D. glucose is toxic to bacteria
E. the cells underwent sporulation

the cells plasmolyzed

The nuclear area of the bacterial cell ________.

A. has abundant histone proteins
B. is connected to the endoplasmic reticulum
C. contains many linear chromosomes
D. is enclosed in a nuclear membrane
E. contains the bacterial chromosome

contains the bacterial chromosome

A eukaryotic cell can ingest a prokaryotic cell by ________.

A. digestive vacuolization
B. active transport
C. pinocytosis
D. phagocytosis
E. osmosis

phagocytosis

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A. lysosome; digestive enzymes
B. ribosomes; storage
C. Golgi complex; secretion
D. mitochondria; ATP production
E. endoplasmic reticulum; internal transport

ribosomes; storage

Which of the following is not a structure of prokaryotic cells?

A. chromosome
B. chloroplast
C. capsule
D. ribosome
E. flagella

chloroplast

With a light microscope, which of the following would allow discrimination between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?

A. observation of the plasma membrane
B. observation of photosynthetic pigment
C. observation of nuclei
D. observation of the ribosomes
E. observation of flagella

observation of nuclei

The plane in which a bacterial cell divides determines the arrangement of cells.

True

The cell walls of bacteria and eukaryotes are very similar.

False

The following bacterial structures increase the likelihood that bacteria will be associated with disease: capsules, fimbriae, and LPS.

True

Bacteria do not have chloroplasts and therefore cannot perform photosynthesis.

False

The cell membrane is a fluid structure that allows membrane proteins to move freely.

True

Endospores can remain dormant for thousands of years. Once this dormant structure is provided appropriate nutrients and growth conditions, it will germinate to form a viable bacterial cell.

True

Acid-fast bacteria demonstrate unique staining properties because of a special protein layer found in their cell walls.

False

Penicillin is more effective against gram-negative bacteria than gram-positive bacteria because it specifically interferes with the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide.

False

Epulopiscium fishelsoni is 0.5 mm in diameter. It contains no nucleus and has peptidoglycan. Due to the size of this cell, it should be classified as a eukaryote.

False

The endosymbiotic theory states that eukaryotic organelles evolved from symbiotic prokaryotes living within other prokaryotes.

True

A strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae is no longer able to synthesize its capsular polysaccharide. What is a likely outcome?

A. It will no longer be motile
B. It will be readily phagocytized upon entering the host
C. It will produce more potent toxins which damage the host
D. It will no longer be able to carry out fermentation
E. It will not be able to appropriately transport ions across its plasma membrane

It will be readily phagocytized upon entering the host

A strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been genetically altered and can no longer produce fimbriae. What is a likely outcome?

A. It will no longer be able to secrete exotoxins.
B. It will be unable to adhere to host tissue and establish infection
C. It will be unable to carry out aerobic respiration
D. It will be readily phagocytized upon entering the host
E. It will demonstrate increased resistance to antibiotics

It will be unable to adhere to host tissue and establish infection

Identify antibacterial strategies that would likely be selectively toxic for bacteria (more than one).

A. inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis
B. inhibition of microtubule function
C. inhibition of fimbriae synthesis
D. interfering with lysosomal function
E. interfering with translation at 70s ribosomes

A. inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis
C. inhibition of fimbriae synthesis
E. interfering with translation at 70s ribosomes

Indicate the bacterial structures that are likely to be antigens, to which host antibodies bind, marking the invader for phagocytosis (more than one).

A. fimbriae
B. ribosomes
C. cell wall
D. apsule
E. nucleoid
F. flagella
G. plasmids

A. fimbriae
C. cell wall
D. apsule
F. flagella

There are some structures that are common to all prokaryotic cells, and others that are only found in some bacterial species or strains.

Select the structures below that are found in all bacterial cells. (more than one)

A. cell wall
B. flagella
C. capsule
D. pilus (pili)
E. fimbriae
F. ribosomes
G. plasma membrane
H. cytoplasm
I. nucleoid

F. ribosomes
G. plasma membrane
H. cytoplasm
I. nucleoid

Sequence the path of a solute from the external environment to the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell.

external environment --> capsule --> cell wall --> plasma membrane --> cytoplasm

Where is the genetic information of the cell stored?

A. rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
B. nucleus
C. Golgi apparatus
D. lysosomes
E. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER

nucleus

The structural framework in a cell is the

A. cytoskeleton.
B. endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
C. extracellular matrix.
D. endomembrane system.
E. plasma membrane.

cytoskeleton.

Where in a cell is ATP made?

A. nucleus
B. chloroplasts
C. mitochondria
D. lysosomes
E. ribosomes

mitochondria

What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?

A. ATP
B. Rough ER
C. ribosomes
D. mRNA
E. DNA

mRNA

One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by

A. the extracellular matrix.
B. the Golgi apparatus.
C. mitochondria.
D. the cytoskeleton.
E. ribosomes.

ribosomes.

Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?

A. flagellum
B. cytoskeleton
C. ribosomes
D. Golgi apparatus
E. mitochondria

Golgi apparatus

Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles?

A. rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
B. lysosomes
C. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
D. mitochondria
E. Golgi apparatus

lysosomes

Where are lipids made in the cell?

A. Golgi apparatus
B. rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
C. ribosomes
D. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
E. mitochondria

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?

A. cytoskeleton
B. nuclear envelope
C. extracellular matrix
D. endomembrane system
E. plasma membrane

plasma membrane

Prokaryotic

Simple

Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic

Very small, much smaller

Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic

"Naked" DNA

Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic or both

Prokaryotic

Only bacteria cells

Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic

Eukaryotic

Nucleus

Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic or both

Eukaryotic

DNA is in a nucleus

Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic or both

Eukaryotic

Larger

Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic

Eukaryotic

Plants, animals, fungi, protists

Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

Cells

Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic or both

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

DNA

Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic or both

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

Microscopic

Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic or both

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

Cell membrance

Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic or both

Which of the following is not a distinguishing characteristic of prokaryotic cells?

A. They usually have a single, circular chromosome.
B. They lack membrane-enclosed organelles
C. They have cell walls containing peptidoglycan
D. Their DNA is not associated with histones
E. They lack a plasma membrane

They lack a plasma membrane

Which statement best describes what happens when a gram-positive bacterium is placed in distilled water and penicillin?

A. No change will result; the solution is isotonic
B. Water will move into the cell
C. Water will move out of the cell
D. The cell will undergo osmotic lysis
E. Sucrose will move into the cell from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration

The cell will undergo osmotic lysis

Which statement best describes what happens when a gram-negative bacterium is placed in distilled water and penicillin?

A. No change will result; the solution is isotonic
B. Water will move into the cell
C. Water will move out of the cell
D. The cell will undergo osmotic lysis
E. Sucrose will move into the cell from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration

Water will move into the cell

Which statement best describes what happens when a gram-positive bacterium is placed in an aqueous solution of lysozyme and 10% sucrose?

A. No change will result; the solution is isotonic
B. Water will move into the cell
C. Water will move out of the cell
D. The cell will undergo osmotic lysis
E. Sucrose will move into the cell from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration

No change will result; the solution is isotonic

Which of the following statements best describes what happens to a cell exposed to polymyxins that destroyed phospholipids?

A. In an isotonic solution, nothing will happen
B. In a hypotonic solution, the cell will lyse
C. Water will move into the cell
D. Intracellular contents will leak from the cell
E. Any of the above might happen

Intracellular contents will leak from the cell

Which of the following is false about fimbriae?

A. They are composed of protein
B. They maybe used for attachment
C. They are found on gram-negative cells
D. They are composed of pilin
E. They may be used for motility

They may be used for motility

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A. glycocalyx - adherence
B. pili - reproduction
C. cell wall - toxin
D. cell wall - protection
E. plasma membrane - transport

pili - reproduction

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A. metachromatic granules - stored phosphates
B. polysaccharide granules - stored starch
C. lipid inclusions - poly - b - hydroxybutyric acid
D. sulfur granules - energy reserve
E. ribosomes - protein storage

ribosomes - protein storage

You have isolated a motile, gram-positive cell with no visible nucleus. You can assume this cell has

A. ribosomes
B. mitochondria
C. an endoplasmic reticulum
D. a Golgi complex
E. all of the above

ribosomes

The antibiotic amphothericin B disrupts plasma membranes by combining with sterols; it will affect all of the following cells except

A. animal cells
B. gram-negative bacterial cells
C. fungal cells
D. Mycoplasma cells
E. plant cells

gram-negative bacterial cells

Three basic bacterial shapes?

1. coccus
2. bacillus
3. spiral

Bacteria are unicellular, and most of them multiply by ______ ______

binary fission

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding prokaryotic cells?

A. They reproduce by binary fission.
B. They typically have a circular chromosome.
C. Their DNA is not enclosed within a membrane.
D. They lack a plasma membrane.
E. They lack membrane-enclosed organelles

They lack a plasma membrane.

Each of the following statements concerning the gram-positive cell wall is true EXCEPT it

A. maintains the shape of the cell.
B. contains teichoic acids.
C. is sensitive to penicillin.
D. is sensitive to lysozyme.
E. protects the cell in a hypertonic environment.

protects the cell in a hypertonic environment.

Which of the following structures is NOT found in some prokaryotic cells?

A. peritrichous flagella
B. cilium
C. pilus
D. axial filament
E. flagellum

cilium

Antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis ultimately cause bacterial cell death as a result of

A. osmotic lysis.
B. cell shrinkage.
C. inhibition of molecular transport.
D. decreased synthesis of peptidoglycan.
E. plasmolysis.

osmotic lysis.

Which of the following organelles most closely resembles a prokaryotic cell?

A. nucleus
B. mitochondrion
C. golgi complex
D. vacuole
E. cell wall

mitochondrion

Which cell wall is resistant to many antibiotics (e.g., penicillin)?

A. gram-positive cell wall
B. gram-negative cell wall
C. both a and b
D. neither a nor b
E. The answer cannot be determined.

gram-negative cell wall

which diagram of a cell wall is decolorized by alcohol?

A. gram-positive cell wall
B. gram-negative cell wall
C. both a and b
D. neither a nor b
E. The answer cannot be determined.

gram-negative cell wall

Which of the following is NOT part of the passive transport process?

A. aquaporins
B. concentration gradient
C. plasma membrane
D. transporter proteins
E. ATP

ATP

Functions of the glycocalyx include all of the following EXCEPT

A. biofilm formation.
B. source of nutrition.
C. binary fission.
D. increased virulence.
E. protection against dehydration.

binary fission.

True/ False

Many enzymes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized within organelles.

False

True/ False

The internal structure of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are the same.

True

True/ False

Spheroplasts, protoplasts, and mycoplasms are bacterial cells without cell walls.

True

True/ False

Cells placed in a hypotonic solution tend to lose water due to osmotic pressure.

False

The DNA found in most bacterial cells

A. is found in multiple copies.
B. is linear in structure.
C. is circular in structure.
D. utilizes histones for chromosomal packaging.
E. is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.

is circular in structure.

Which one of the following pairs is mismatched?

A. ribosomes - protein storage
B. sulfur granules - energy reserve
C. lipid inclusions - energy reserve
D. gas vacuoles - flotation
E. metachromatic granules - phosphate storage

ribosomes - protein storage

In a hypertonic solution, a bacterial cell will typically

A. osmolyze.
B. stay the same.
C. plasmolyze.
D. lyse.
E. burst.

plasmolyze.

Where are phospholipids most likely found in a prokaryotic cell?

A. flagella
B. around organelles
C. plasma membrane
D. ribosomes
E. plasma membrane and around organelles

plasma membrane

which a cell wall contains porins?

A. gram-positive cell wall
B. gram-negative cell wall
C. both a and b
D. neither a nor b
E. The answer cannot be determined.

gram-negative cell wall

Tumbles occur when

A. the flagella rotate counterclockwise.
B. the flagella undulate.
C. the flagella rotate clockwise.
D. the flagella stop rotating

the flagella rotate clockwise.

Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellum?

A. Lophotrichous and monotrichous
B. Monotrichous
C. Lophotrichous
D. Amphitrichous
E. Peritrichous

Monotrichous

Peritrichous bacteria make a run when

A. the flagella turn counterclockwise and separate.
B. the flagella turn clockwise and separate.
C. the flagella turn clockwise and become bundled.
D. the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled.

the flagella turn counterclockwise and become bundled.

Which of the following types of bacterial cells would have flagella located at only one end of the cell?

A. Lophotrichous
B. Amphitrichous
C. Lophotrichous and monotrichous
D. Peritrichous
E. Monotrichous
F. Monotrichous and amphitrichous

...

Which of the following statements about bacterial flagella is true?

A. Flagella work by undulating.
B. Bacteria can only rotate flagella counterclockwise.
C. Flagella can rotate 360 degrees.
D. Bacteria can only rotate flagella clockwise.

Flagella can rotate 360 degrees.

Taxis is

A. another word for stimulus.
B. movement towards or away from a stimulus.
C. caused by the undulating motion of a bacterium.
D. another term for bacterial tumbling.

movement towards or away from a stimulus.

Which of the following terms refers to a bacterium moving towards a light source?

A. Negative chemotaxis
B. Positive phototaxis
C. Positive chemotaxis
D. Negative phototaxis

Positive phototaxis

As a bacterium approaches a food source, one would expect

A. flagella to stop spinning.
B. tumbles to become more frequent.
C. flagella to rotate clockwise more frequently.
D. runs to become more frequent.

runs to become more frequent.

Why are receptors on the cell surface necessary for bacterial movement?

A. The bacterium contains receptors that are sensitive to light.
B. The receptors actually spin the flagella.
C. The receptors sense the stimulus and send signals to the flagella.
D. The receptors physically alter shape to steer the bacterium.

The receptors sense the stimulus and send signals to the flagella.

Which of the following scenarios is an example of bacterial motility?

A. A bacterium moving towards a food source
B. A bacterium traveling through the air from a sneeze
C. A bacterium being removed from the skin during hand washing

A bacterium moving towards a food source

Axial filaments are found on

A. streptococci.
B. spirochetes.
C. rod-shaped bacilli.
D. staphylococci.

spirochetes.

How do axial filaments differ from regular bacterial flagella?

A. They do not rotate.
B. They do not function in cell movement.
C. The axial filament is located between the cell membrane and the outer membrane.

The axial filament is located between the cell membrane and the outer membrane.

What is the advantage to spirochetes of the corkscrew movement provided by axial filaments?

A. It makes spirochete cells more flexible, and prevents them from breaking as easily as bacillus-shaped bacteria.
B. It hides the flagella, so they are not as easily detected by the immune system.
C. It provides faster movement, allowing the spirochete to escape the cells of the immune system.
D. It allows the cells to move more easily through viscous human tissues and fluids, such as mucus.

It allows the cells to move more easily through viscous human tissues and fluids, such as mucus.

Axial filaments are composed of

A. axial fibers.
B. endoflagella.
C. the outer membrane.

endoflagella.

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