Joan of Arc
An obscure peasant French girl whose vision and work revived French fortunes and led them to victory in the 100 Year's War
1315-1322; poor harvests and crops ruined by severe weather combined with price inflation, led to increase in disease and death, decrease in productivity
The boil that resulted from catching the Bubonic Plague, gave the plague its name and caused agonizing pain
People who whipped themselves to cleanse their sin--they thought Plague was God's punishment for sins.
This battle was fought in 1346 where the English King Edward III and his son Edward the Black Prince fought the French and Philip VI. The English defeated the French with their longbows.
a battle in northern France in which English longbowmen under Henry V decisively defeated a much larger French army in 1415
A division that happened with the church, with Pope Urban VI in Rome and Anti-Pope Clement VIII in Avignon
Believed that reform of the church could be achieved through periodic assemblies, representing all the Christian people
Fine paid on a marriage during the Middle Ages in England. A peasant would pay a this to his lord upon the marriage of a woman. The justification for this was that when a woman married, her lord was losing a worker. Usually the bride's father would pay, as buying the right to give his daughter away.
Popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years' War. The revolt centered in the Oise valley north of Paris. This rebellion became known because the nobles derided peasants as "Jaques Bonhomme" (Jack Goodfellow)
A survey of Bohemia history showed Czech hostility towards Germans. There were guild regulations making race and social class requirements.
Statute of Kilkenny
The most extensive attempt to prevent intermarriage and protect racial purity; 1366; defined how Irish and English people were to differ from one another to make race obvious
They were sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles.
Italian underclass; a new force that disenfranchised and heavily taxed the people bitterly for being excluded from holding power. They used armed force and violence to take over the government. (p.416-417)
the revival of antiquity took the profound form of interest in and study of the latin classics.
A powerful book on political power, how a ruler should gain it, maintain it, and increase it.
Was a tax on salt used by Charles VII to bring in income to rebuild France after the civil war (1453-1789)
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
statement of French king Charles VII asserting royal control over church appointments and the superiority of a general council over the papacy
Court of Star Chamber
Created by Henry VII with the sanction of Parliament in 1487, this court was intended to end the perversion of English justice by powerful nobles who used intimidation and bribery to win favorable verdicts in court cases. This court had the king's councilors as judges, and they were not moved by those tactics.
men that were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel they dished out severe punishments that repressed violence