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Demonstrating the phenomenon of ________, Zajonc found that cockroaches will run faster when ________.

social facilitation; other cockroaches are present

Which of the following is NOT a reason why we hurt others?

media altruism

The finding that we're more positively predisposed toward people, places, or things that resemble us is called

the implicit egotism effect

A belief is

a conclusion regarding factual evidence.

Who is least likely to be aggressive?

Shoshone, who lives in Anchorage, Alaska

________ is the assumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to internal dispositions of individuals within the group.

ultimate attribution error

Prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our present misfortunes according to the

scapegoat hypothesis

When we experience an unpleasant state of tension between two or more conflicting thoughts we are experiencing

cognitive dissonance

________ is the claim that our attributions and behaviors are shaped by a belief that the world is fair and people always get what they deserve.

the just world hypothesis

Tamika met Samantha who was new to the school. Tamika began to develop a friendship with Samantha and soon they became good friends. Then Tamika learned that Samantha had been a troublemaker at her old school. Tamika liked Samantha but now saw her as a trouble maker. Tamika finally resolved these conflicting emotions by deciding that Samantha should be admired for turning over a new leaf at her new school. This is can be explained by

cognitive dissonance theory

he following types of people may exhibit high levels of prejudice against a wide variety of out-groups EXCEPT

people with high levels of intrinsic reliogisity

Sophia went out and bought some anti-aging skin cream because an actor who plays a doctor on a soap opera recommended it. This is known as

maladaptive gullibility

All of the following conclusions were reached based on the Milgram study EXCEPT

Americans were more likely to obey the experimenter's commands than non-Americans.

Which of the following statements is most likely to contribute to groupthink?

"Im sure we all agree on this"

Sonya, who believes in a just world, believes that Sander is responsible for his getting AIDS because of his lifestyle. This phenomenon is known as

blaming the victim

What is the moral or take-home message of Solomon Asch's series of experiments in which participants were asked to judge the lengths of lines? People will go to great lengths

to fit in with others

The Robbers Cave study and the jigsaw classroom underscore a lesson confirmed by many other social psychology studies; that is,

increased contact between racial groups is rarely sufficient to reduce prejudice.

________ suggests that we start with a small request before asking for a bigger one.

the foot in the door technique

Which heuristic makes us more likely to believe something we've heard many times?

the recognition heuristic

Emilio saw a wonderful all-in-one kitchen appliance for sale on tv. The appliance would allow him to get rid of six small appliances and leave more room in his kitchen. Emilio called the number and agreed to purchase the product. He then found out that the price only covered the product base and he would have to purchase each appliance add-on individually. When he did this the product cost significantly more than he originally thought. This is known as t

low ball technique

You get on an elevator. Everyone is facing to the right. You turn and also face to the right. This is an example of

conformity

Learning about psychological research can change real-world behavior for the better. This is known as

the enlightenment effect

Mike is a great football player. Last Saturday, his new girlfriend attended the game to watch him play, and Mike played even better than usual. Mike's enhanced performance demonstrates the phenomenon known as

social facilitation

Guru Mana is the leader of the cult of "The Divine Purification of The Body." His members

are probably psychologically normal

Sumatra, who is a high school senior, a cheerleader, and the class vice president, would be more likely to be positively disposed to which of the following students?

Jamal, a senior captain of the football team and class treasurer

Social psychology is best defined as the scientific study of

groups.

A trait that assesses the extent to which people's behaviors reflect their true feelings and attitudes is called

self monitoring

________ creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different.

adaptive conservatism

The difference between conformity and obedience is

conformity is influence from peers or colleagues and obedience is influence from authority.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

Human nature is a combination of both socially constructive and destructive tendencies.

Amanda, Sarah, Jonas, and William have been assigned a group project. Amanda ends up doing most of the work while the others get the same grade as she. This is an example of

social loafing

________ theory proposes that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors.

self perception

Miranda received a phone call from a telemarketer for a local charity. The telemarketer asked for a $1000 donation. When Miranda refused, the telemarketer then asked for $25 to which Miranda agreed. This is an example of

the door in the face technique

When Sam went looking for a new car, he met a beautiful saleswoman who described the beauty of the car and the flashiness, and how good Sam would look driving it instead of the poor gas mileage, the exorbitant price and poor road performance. Sam made a snap decision to buy the car from the persuasive saleswoman. Sam was using which alternative pathway in making a decision?

the peripheral route

_______ involves having someone agree to a request and then revealing that there are additional hidden obligations.

the low ball technique

________ are beliefs about the characteristics of an out-group about which we are unaware

implicit stereotypes

A trait that assesses the extent to which people's behaviors reflect their true feelings and attitudes is called

self monitoring

The shortcut that helps a person to make typically accurate snap decisions is called

a recognition heuristic.

The tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences is known as

the fundamental attribution error

________ is the treatment in which people are first introduced to the reasons why a belief seems to be correct, and then exposed to the reasons why the belief is incorrect.

inoculation

There are two alternative pathways to persuading others. One leads us to respond to persuasive arguments on the basis of snap judgments. This is known as the

the peripheral route

Research suggests that cults promote groupthink in the following ways EXCEPT

connecting group members to the outside world

According to research, humans have a biological need for interpersonal interactions. This is called the

need tobelong theory

he Seekers thought the world was coming to an end on December 21. They prayed for their salvation. When the world did not come to an end

this strengthened their convictions because of cognitive dissonance.

________ creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different.

adaptive conservatism

Social Psychology

The study of how people influence others' behavior, beliefs and attitudes

Need to Belong Theory

biologically based need for interpersonal connections

Evolutionary factors

social influence processes (conformity, obedience) generally serve us well, unless accepted unquestioningly

Social facilitation or disruption

enhancement of easy tasks, or disruption of difficult ones, elicited by the presence of others

Fundamental Attribution Error

tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences (personality, attitudes, intelligence) on other people's behavior

Cultural disparity for the FAE:

Asian cultures are more likely to consider situational factors

Social Comparison Theory

we evaluate our beliefs, attitudes, and abilities by comparing ourselves to others

Mass hysteria

outbreak of irrational behavior that is spread by social contagion

Collective delusions

many people become simultaneously convinced of bizarre falsehoods

Conformity

tendency of people to change their behavior because of group influence

Autokinetic effect

group judgments gradually converge around a common norm

Groupthink

emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking and sound decision making

Group polarization

tendency of group discussions to strengthen dominant positions held by individual group members

Cults and brainwashing

promote groupthink by:Employing persuasive leadership that fosters loyalty,Disconnecting group members from outside world,Discouraging questioning of leadership,Gradually indoctrinating new members

Resisting cult influence via the

inoculation effect

Pluralistic ignorance

does anyone else think this is an emergency?

diffusion of responsibility

passing the buck

Social Loafing

For a group, the whole is less than the sum of its parts

altruism

helping selflessly, role of empathy

Central route

evaluate merits thoughtfully

Peripheral route

snap judgements

Adaptive conservatism

distrust anything unfamiliar

ultimate attribution errors

attributing behavior of entire groups to their dispositions

Personality consists of traits

relatively enduring predispositions that influence our behavior across many situations

Nomothetic approach

focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals (most modern research)

Idiographic approach

focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person (most case studies)

Shared environmental factors

(e.g., parents raise their children similarly)

Nonshared environmental factors

(e.g., parents treat one child more affectionately)

Molecular genetic studies

pinpoint genes associated with specific personality traits

Psychic determinism

all psychological events have a cause

Symbolic meaning

all actions are meaningful

Unconscious motivation

we rarely understand why we do things

Id

basic instincts; the reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression

Pleasure principle

the tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification

Ego

the boss; the psyche's executive and principal decision maker

Reality principle

the tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet

Superego

our sense of morality

Defense mechanisms

unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety

Repression

motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses

Denial

motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences

Regression

act of returning psychologically to a younger, and typically simpler and safer, age

Reaction-formation

transformation of an anxiety-provoking emotion into its opposite

Projection

unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others

Illusory correlation -

the perception of nonexistent statistical associations between variables in personality test results

P.T. Barnum effect -

tendency of people to accept high base rate descriptions as accurate

Projective tests

consist of ambiguous stimuli that examinees must interpret

Projective hypothesis -

examinees project aspects of their own personality onto the ambiguous stimulus

California Psychological Inventory -

offspring of MMPI Primarily assesses traits in the normal range

Rational/theoretical method of test construction -

requires test developers to begin with a clear-cut conceptualization of a trait and then write items to assess that conceptualization

Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) -

assesses positive emotions, negative emotions, and impulse control

Structured personality tests -

paper-and-pencil tests consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed ways

widely used structured test designed to assess symptoms of mental disorders

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) -

Built using empirical method of test construction-

an approach in which researchers begin with two or more criterion groups, and examine which items best distinguish them

Results in low face validity -

the extent to which respondents can tell what the items are measuring

Walter Mischel -

argued that personality traits did not predict behavior very well

Seymour Epstein -

demonstrated that while Mischel was correct for specific events, personality traits can predict aggregated behaviors

Big Five

traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analysis of personality measures

Uncovered using lexical approach -

most crucial features of personality are embedded in language

Extraversion -

social and lively

Neuroticism -

tense and moody

Conscientiousness -

careful and responsible

Agreeableness -

friendly, and easy to get along with

Factor analysis -

statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories

Locus of control -

extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside of their control

Core motive in personality is self-actualization-

the drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent

Carl Rogers -

personalities consist of three major components: organism, self, and conditions of worth

Incongruence -

inconsistency between our personalities and innate dispositions

Abraham Maslow -

studied the characteristics of self-actualized people

Prone to peak experiences -

transcendent moments of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world

According to the authors, ________ is both the most respected and the most widely criticized personality theorist.

Sigmund Freud

What method of personality assessment is considered the most controversial in psychology today?

projective tests

The Freudian idea of "psychic determinism" implies that

any psychological event has an underlying cause.

What neo-Freudian emphasized the importance of the collective unconscious in personality development?

jung

A key point of agreement between contemporary psychologists and the ideas of Sigmund Freud is that adult personality

is relatively stable across time

Concerned with his own academic flaws and weaknesses, Preston often aggressively lashes out at his instructors via his evaluations of their teaching ability on RateMyProfessor.com and during class teaching evaluations. This is an example of what Freudian defense mechanism?

projection

Which theory of personality is most concerned with understanding people's unconscious motivations?

psychoanalytic

A focus on the self was of most direct interest to the ________ perspective on personality development.

humanistic

Which of the following is an important criticism of the Big Five model of personality?

People may not be consciously aware of all aspects of personality.

As you are preparing for your biology exam you notice two of your classmates in the library. After going to talk with them you discover they are planning to use a cheat sheet during tomorrow's exam. What part of your personality would cause you to feel ashamed or guilty if you too created a cheat sheet for the exam?

the superego

A common criticism of Adler, Freud, and Jung's theories of personality development is

they are filled with unfalsifiable claims.

Geoffrey is a clinical psychologist who is separated from his wife and is in the process of filing for divorce. Whenever his friends or colleagues ask Geoffrey to talk about it or attempt to cheer him up, he focuses on the statistical evidence about the likelihood of divorce, clinical experience he has had, and anything but his emotions and the pain of the marriage ending. Freud would say that Geoffrey is displaying a living, breathing example of

intellectualization

Which of the following is NOT one of the dimensions of the Big Five?

Sociableness

The ________ seeks to find a resolution between the competing demands of the ________.

ego; id and superego

According to the humanists, a key motive in human personality development was

personal fulfillment and growth

What structure serves as the social component of one's personality?

Superego

Maslow and Rogers would be likely to disagree with Freud's focus on

all of these

Freud's theory of personality is most interested in understanding the interaction among the three structures of personality within the ________ mind.

unconscious

A concern with personal goals and increased individual self-esteem is most characteristic of those from ________ cultures.

individualistic

A major issue that many people have with Freud's theory is

he generalization of his ideas from an unrepresentative sample.

A newborn baby is in what stage of psychosexual development?

oral stage

A major difference between the humanists and both the behaviorists and psychodynamic theorists is the humanists focus on

free will

Which of the following is NOT one of the three components of the Freudian personality structure?

alter ego

According to Maslow, a self-actualized person is someone who is

creative and problem focused

What personality structure(s) is/are tasked with the responsibility of keeping the id's impulsive and destructive actions in check?

the ego and superego

Michelle believes it is important that her students feel responsible for producing the positive outcomes in their lives. As a result she is likely to

allow them the chance to influence important class policies and assessment of student learning.

Oscar redirects his aggressive urges to beat up and dominate others into a lucrative career as a professional boxer. This is an example of what Freudian defense mechanism?

sublimation

According to your authors, mass media psychologists and other social commentators are often guilty of

proposing single-cause explanations of human behavior.

B. F. Skinner's approach is most open to criticism about its neglect of the importance of ________ in personality development.

thinking

According to your authors, mass media psychologists and other social commentators are often guilty of

proposing single-cause explanations of human behavior.

What was the third, and some would say final, major force in the field of personality psychology?

humanism

The role of one's thought patterns in personality development was emphasized by

social learning theorists

A key point from the research on individualism-collectivism is that

here are consistently differences between and within cultures on these personality styles.

According to Freud, appropriate sexual and romantic relationships are only possible when an individual has attained the ________ stage of psychosexual development.

genital

The fact that a general statement can be seen by five different individuals as being an insightful analysis of their personality is most likely due to the

P. T. Barnum effect.

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