Biology Midterm (Mader, 1402)

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quiz questions from Mader book Chapters 1-7

Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy as it increases in complexity?

molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem

What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system?

An organ system includes tissues.

Which of the following statements about ecosystems is false?

Bacteria and fungi recycle energy within an ecosystem.

The ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is

sunlight.

A consumer eating a producer represents

a transfer of chemical nutrients and energy

Which of the following statements regarding a common cellular activity is false?

New cells are derived from cellular components like organelles

Which of the following statements about the properties of life is false?

All organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal temperature

Which of the following statements about living systems is false?

Living systems are composed of two or more cells.

Organisms that are prokaryotes are in the domains

Bacteria and Archaea

Which of the following statements about the domain Bacteria is true?

All bacteria lack a nucleus.

Members of the kingdom Animalia

can obtain their food by eating other organisms.

What feature is common to prokaryotes, fungi, and plants?

cell walls

Which of the following is a kingdom within the domain Eukarya?

Fungi

All organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae

are photosynthetic and contain cells that are surrounded by cell walls with cellulose.

Which of the following statements is not consistent with Darwin's theory of natural selection?

Individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environment.

An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria

to be more resistant to that antibiotic.

Which of the following statements about evolution is true?

Evolution is a passive process.

A hypothesis is

a tentative answer to some question.

You notice that over the past month, many students on campus have started wearing a new style of school sweatshirt. You think to yourself that perhaps the bookstore has recently started selling this new sweatshirt style. This prediction is an example of

a hypothesis.

A theory is

an explanation of an idea that is broad in scope with multiple lines of evidence.

To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be

testable and falsifiable

The role of a control in an experiment is to

provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group.

A scientist performs a controlled experiment. This means that

two experiments are conducted, one differing from the other by only a single variable.

Which of the following best represents an example of technology?

testing for genetic diseases

As the environment changes,

natural selection adapts populations to their environment.

What phrase best describes the connection between the ants' use of formic acid and the theme of Chapter 2?

Chemicals are part of the hierarchical structure of life.

The four most common elements in living organisms are

C, H, O, N.

Which of the following is a trace element in the human body?

zinc

Which of the following statements regarding matter is false?

Matter can be created and destroyed.

Which of the following trace elements is commonly added to table salt to prevent the formation of goiters?

iodine

Which of the following is another term used for atomic mass?

dalton

In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a(n) ________ bond.

polar covalent

Which of the following trace elements may be added to bottled water in an effort to prevent tooth decay?

fluoride

Which of the following statements best describes a compound?

A compound contains two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.

Which of the following statements regarding the oxygen atom of a water molecule is true?

Oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms.

________ are weak bonds that are not strong enough to hold atoms together to form molecules but are strong enough to form bonds within and around large molecules.

Hydrogen bonds

Water molecules stick to other water molecules because

hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atoms of other water molecules.

The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as

cohesion.

Which of the following is dependent on the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules besides water?

the universality of water as a solvent

Water's surface tension and heat storage capacity is accounted for by its

hydrogen bonds

A solution with a pH of 7 is

neutral

As ice melts,

hydrogen bonds are broken

A buffer

donates H+ ions when conditions become too basic and accepts H+ ions when conditions become too acidic.

The emission of ________ and ________ are primarily responsible for acid precipitation.

nitrogen oxides . . . sulfur oxides

Compared to a solution of pH 3, a solution of pH 1 is

100 times more acidic.

In the equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O, the H2 molecules are ________ and the H2O molecules are ________.

reactants . . . products

Which of the following would be considered an effective way to decrease the production of acid precipitation?

Whenever possible, walk or ride a bicycle instead of driving a car.

Which of the following will contain more heat but has a lower temperature?

an Olympic-sized heated indoor swimming pool

In the equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O,

only H2O is a compound.

What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?

12

A hydroxyl group is

characteristic of alcohols

A disaccharide forms when

two monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis.

The results of dehydration synthesis can be reversed by

hydrolysis.

High-fructose corn syrup is composed primarily of a polysaccharide called

starch.

What is the general function of enzymes within a cell?

to speed up chemical reactions

Lactose intolerance is the inability to

digest lactose.

Which of the following contains a carboxyl and an amino group?

amino acids

Organic compounds

always contain carbon

Which of the following is an amino group?

-NH2

Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false?

Carbon has the capacity to form polar bonds with hydrogen.

Cellulose differs from starch in that

most animals cannot break down cellulose, whereas starch is easily digested.

The storage form of carbohydrates is ________ in animals and ________ in plants.

glycogen . . . starch

Fatty acids are

hydrophobic.

If you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of atherosclerotic disease, you would use olive oil that

is liquid at room temperature

Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be

unsaturated.

A phospholipid is composed of

one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids

Which one of the following would be correctly classified as a protein?

enzymes

Which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false?

Hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds.

The tertiary structure of a polypeptide refers to

the overall three-dimensional structure.

The primary structure of a protein is

the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain

Peptide bonds

link amino acids.

A protein containing more than one polypeptide chain exhibits the ________ level of protein structure.

quaternary

DNA differs from RNA because DNA

contains thymine in place of uracil.

Structural proteins

anchor cell parts.

Genetic information is encoded in the

sequence of nucleotides in DNA.

Which of the following observations would provide the strongest evidence that the many different plants we call orchids are actually related to one another?

They all have the same common ancestor.

Consider the following statement: "If all vertebrates have backbones, and turtles are vertebrates, then turtles have backbones." This statement is an example of

deductive reasoning.

Which of the following options correctly pairs a polymer and its monomer?

DNA, nucleotides

The teeth of grain-eating animals (such as horses) are usually broad and ridged. This makes the teeth suitable for grinding and chewing. Meat-eating animals (such as lions) have pointed teeth that are good for puncturing and ripping flesh. This illustrates

a result of natural selection and the connection between form and function.

Which of the following statements about cells is true?

All cells have internal structures that move.

Light microscopes

use light and glass lenses to magnify an image

One centimeter = ________ millimeters.

10

As cell size increases, the

volume increases faster than the surface area.

A cell is exposed to a substance that prevents it from dividing. The cell becomes larger and larger. This situation

will eventually be problematic, since the cell's ability to absorb nutrients through its outer membrane will not keep increasing as quickly as its cytoplasmic needs.

Resolution is the

ability of an optical instrument to show two close objects as separate.

Which of the following structures is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells?

nucleoid

Which of the following cells has the greatest surface-to-volume ratio?

bacterium

________ cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus.

Prokaryotic

Archaea are composed of ________ cells.

prokaryotic

Which of the following structures are used by prokaryotes for attaching to surfaces?

both pili and capsules

The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell

contains the cell's DNA.

The membranous compartmentalization of a cell

allows different metabolic processes to occur simultaneously.

Which of the following statements about cellular metabolism is false?

Cellular metabolism occurs in animal but not plant cells.

Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ________ and ________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ________.

chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . centrioles

The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines

cell theory.

The endomembrane system includes all of the following organelles except the

peroxisome

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

stores calcium ions in muscle cells.

The two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the production of

membrane and proteins secreted by the cell.

The cells that produce hair contain a lot of ________, while the cells that produce the oils that coat the hair contain a lot of ________.

rough endoplasmic reticulum . . . smooth endoplasmic reticulum

The Golgi apparatus

stores, modifies, and packages proteins.

Which of the following statements regarding the Golgi apparatus is false?

The Golgi apparatus decreases in size when a cell increases its protein production.

Which of the following statements about lysosomes is false?

Lysosomes synthesize proteins from the recycled amino acids.

Which of the following statements about internal membranes in eukaryotic cells is false?

In eukaryotic cells, internal membranes standardize the internal environment of all cellular organelles.

Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called

signal transduction

Which of the following substances would have the most trouble crossing a biological membrane by diffusing through the lipid bilayer?

Na+

Small, nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids

easily pass through a membrane's lipid bilayer.

All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane that is similar in ________ and ________.

structure . . . function

The fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as consisting of

individual proteins and phospholipids that can drift in a phospholipid bilayer

Plasma membranes are selectively permeable. This means that

the plasma membrane allows some substances to enter or leave a cell more easily than others.

When physicians perform an organ transplant, they choose a donor whose tissues match those of the recipient as closely as possible. Which of the following cell components are being matched?

cell-surface carbohydrates

Most of the functions of a cell membrane are performed by

proteins.

Which of the following statements regarding membrane protein function is false?

Membrane proteins transfer genetic information to the cytoplasm.

Membrane phospholipids

often have "kinks" in their tails caused by the presence of a double bond between carbons

A major function of glycoproteins and glycolipids in the cell membrane is to

allow the cells of an embryo to sort themselves into tissues and organs.

The cholesterol associated with animal cell membranes

helps to stabilize the cell membrane at body temperature.

Diffusion does not require the cell to expend ATP. Therefore, diffusion is considered a type of

passive transport

Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by

passive transport.

A plant cell in a hypotonic solution

is turgid

Osmosis can be defined as

the diffusion of water.

When two aqueous solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a semipermeable membrane and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will

exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration.

Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ________ and moves a substance ________ its concentration gradient.

transport proteins . . . down

Which of the following statements is true among all types of passive diffusion?

The concentration gradient is the driving force.

Which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient?

active transport

Phagocytosis is to eating as pinocytosis is to

drinking.

The process of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is

phagocytosis.

Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?

exocytosis

Cells acquire LDLs by

receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Which of the following statements regarding diffusion is false?

Diffusion occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated.

The summary equation for photosynthesis is

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6 O2.

What is the name given to organisms that can make their own food and the food for the biosphere?

producers

Photoautotrophs

produce organic molecules from inorganic molecules.

Which of the following is an example of a photoautotroph?

cyanobacteria in freshwater and marine ecosystems

Autotrophs that utilize light as their energy source are

photoautotrophs.

CO2 enters and O2 escapes from a leaf via

stomata.

In the chloroplast, sugars are made in a compartment that is filled with a thick fluid called the

stroma.

Where is chlorophyll found in a plant cell?

thylakoid membranes

In most green plants, chloroplasts are

concentrated in a zone of leaf tissue called the mesophyll.

Chloroplasts contain disklike membranous sacs arranged in stacks called

grana.

The oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from

water.

Which of the following molecules is both a reactant and a product of photosynthesis?

H2O

Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis is false?

ATP is not produced during photosynthesis, but only during respiration.

What is the source of energy that provides the boost for electrons during photosynthesis?

light

Which of the following is part of the light reaction?

formation of waste products in the form of O2

The light reactions occur in the ________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________.

thylakoid membranes . . . stroma

Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?

ATP, NADPH, O2

Sunlight is a type of ________ energy.

electromagnetic

Which of the following are produced during the Calvin cycle?

glucose, ADP, NADP+

The full range of electromagnetic energy is called the ________ spectrum.

electromagnetic

Chlorophyll b and carotenoids

pass absorbed energy to chlorophyll a.

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