Japanese Intrusion into China
In 1931 Japanese military expansionists gained power in Manchuria after WWI, in violation to the Open Door Policy. Japanese set up a "Puppet Government" as they enjoyed a free hand in China.
Promotes the supremacy of:
The State over the Individual
Dictatorship over Democracy
Authoritarianism over Freedom
Regulated State-Run Economy over Free Market Militarism and War over peace.
Goals of the Nazis
Revive the German economy through military strength in order to cripple Communism and "purify" the German race.
Treaty of Versailles 1935
Hitler ignored the treaty by ending WWI reparation payments, beginning re-armament of the German Navy and Army, and re-militarizing the Rhineland.
The Neutrality Acts
1st Neutrality Act (1935) placed an arms embargo on belligerents, essentially cutting off arms to countries at war.
2nd Neutrality Act (1936) banned any loans to belligerents.
3rd Neutrality Act (1937) stated that all trade, other than ammunitions, should be done on a cash and carry basis. It also banned U.S. travel on belligerent ships to avoid WWI tragedies like the sinking of the Lusitania.
U.S. Turning Away from Isolationism
By 1937, the Roosevelt ordered the rebuilding of the U.S. military, agreed to sell bombers to France, repealed the arms embargo, and allowed arms to reach China.
The Tripartite Pact
The pact was signed in September 1940 by Japan, Germany, and Italy and formed the Axis. It promised that the three nations would assist each other in the event that they would be attacked by a nation not already at war.
Reaction to Continued Japanese Aggression
Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in the U.S. and cut off exports of scrap metal, oil, and aviation fuel. This proved critical to a small island that had no natural resources.
Effects of Pearl Harbor
It ultimately unified Americans in the war effort, shaped U.S. foreign policy for decades, began the internment of Japanese Americans in relocation camps.
The Pacific Campaign
Operating out of Australia, General MacArthur leapfrogged through the island chains of the South Pacific. His goal was to liberate the Philippines, cut off Japanese forces from Japan and supplies. Fierce and costly fighting at Guadalacanal, Okinawa, Tarawa, and Iwo Jima brought on a string of Japanese defeats that ultimately disabled its naval fleet.
Also known as D-Day, it was the greatest amphibious assault ever attempted. The main assault was carried out by 150,000 Allies on June 6. Planes strafed the beaches and ships bombarded the coastlines. Patton and the Third Army raced through France, pushing back German lines. France was liberated in August 1944.