A conference in the United States Colonial history form June 19 through July 11, 1754 in Albany New York. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling., British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament
Sugar Act of 1764
An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies., Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
military tribunals composed only of a judge, not local common-law jury, Sugar Act required that offenders be tried in these courts rather than local courts, provoking opposition from smugglers accustomed to acquittal before sympathetic local juries
Quartering Act of 1765
an act passed that required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops; many colonists resented this and many refused to comply
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799), Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech
Stamp Act Congress of 1765
Assemblage in New York City which brought together 27 delegates who drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and beseeched the king and Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Stamp Act boycott of 1765
Merchants in different states pledged not to buy anything shipped from England. In many towns they called themselves the "Sons of Liberty" and used violent means, if necessary, to punish merchants violating the boycott. Wrecked mayhem on tax distributors, unpopular officials, governor.
Repeal of Stamp Act
the machinery for collecting the tax broke down; in 1765 when the new act was to go into effect, the stamp agents had all ben forced to resign, and there was no one to sell the stamps; Parliament in 1766 grudgingly repealed the Stamp Act; having withdrawn the Stamp Act, Parliament in virtually the same breath provocatively passed this act, reaffirming Parliament's right "to bind" the colonies "in al cases whatsoever"; it defined the constitutional principle it would not yield: absolute and unqualified sovereignty over its North American colonies
Declaratory Act of 1766
this Act repealed the Stamp Act, but stated that Great Britain can rule the colonies anyway she sees fit (with date), Reaffirmed Parliament's right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever". It defined absolute and unqualified sovereignty over its North American colonies
William Pitt was a British leader from 1757-1758. He was a leader in the London government, and earned himself the name, "Organizer of Victory". He led and won a war against Quebec. Pittsburgh was named after him.
Charles Townshend was control of the British ministry and was nicknamed "Champagne Charley" for his brilliant speeches in Parliament while drunk. He persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts. These new regulations was a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, and tea. It was a tax that the colonist were greatly against and was a near start for rebellions to take place.
Townshend Act of 1767
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea. These Acts also suspended New York's assemblies for there the Quartering Acts had not been enforced. They also established a Board of Customs Commissioners at Boston, but did give in and reorganized the Colonial Vice-Admiralty Courts
Daughters of Liberty
This organization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
2nd American trade boycott
???? Look this up ????
London member of Parliament who denounced George III's policies. Fled to France after publishing a piece offending the government. Came back to England in 1768 and ran for parliament but was arrested. Loved by the colonists
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.
Partial Repeal of Townshend duties
in 1770, Lord North tried to get a full repeal of the Townshend duties, but could only convince Parliament to repeal all but the one on tea, which was the most lucrative anyway
American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Committees of correspondence
organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Tea Act of 1773
Allowed East India Company to avoid navigation taxes when exporting tea to colonies and gave them power to monopolize tea trade; this angered colonists and threatened merchants and the colonial economy.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Coercive Acts of 1774
called the Intolerable Acts by colonist, restricted rights of colonist in Mass. to hold town meetings, required all colonist to provide food and housing to British soldiers living in colonies
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution; they issued the Declaration of Independence and framed Articles of Confederation
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Battle for Bunker Hill
even though colonists lost, celebrated the massive casualties of Britain
-king officially declared colonies in rebellion
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.