Exam 1

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224 terms · McDaniel's Exam 1

Politics

the precess of making collective decisions to allocate public resources and to create and enforce rules for operation of society

Institutions

codified constraints on behavior

collective dilemma

situation in which there is a conflict between group goals and self interest/individual goals

collective-action problem

individuals are better off trying to free ride and benefit from a public good without contributing to it. People as a group will be better off if they all contributed

Prisoner's dilemma

interaction between two individuals in which neither actor has an incentive to cooperate, better off if they both cooperated

coordination problem

situation in which 2 or more ppl are better off if every player chooses the same course of action, there may be disagreement

unstable coalition

3 or more ppl must take a collective choice but any voting coalition for an alternative could be divided by another proposal

public good

benefit provided to a group of people such that each member can enjoy it without necessarily having to pay for it, and such that one person's enjoyment of it does not inhibit the enjoyment of it by others

private good

a product or benefit provided such that its enjoyment can be limited specific people, and one individuals consumption of it precludes others from consuming it

free riding

benefiting from a public good while avoiding the costs of contributing to it

agenda setter

an authority that controls what options are decided on by a group

principal-agent problem (delegation problem)

dilemma arising from direct conflict between individuals

bureaucracy

thought of as an agent that implements policy on behalf of Congress and the president, who are principals

institutions

established to address collective dilemmas and principal-agent problems

public policies

the programs and decisions created by government

path dependence

the notion that earlier events or decisions deeply affect current and future policy decisions

authoritarianism

a political system in which there is no expectation that the government represents the people and the institutions of government do not give the people a direct voice

dictatorship

an authoritarian political system in which sovereign power is vested in one individual (Fidel Castro of Cuba)

monarchy

a political system in which a ruler (king or queen) is chosen by virtue of being the heir of the previous ruler (Saudi Arabia and jordan)

Oligarchy

a political system in which power resides in a small segment of society

one-party states

a political system in which one party controls the government and actively seeks to prevent other parties from contesting for power (another form of oligarchy) (China)

Democracy

refers to the rule by people, nearly all are republics. Popular election of the government and basic protections of civil rights and liberties

republic

a political system in which public officials are chosen to represent the people in in an assembly, which makes important policy decisions

political rights

the degree to which a country's political process allows for open and extensive participation of citizens, with free and fair elections

civil liberties

the degree to which a countries people are free to express their views and organize into political parties and other groups, to run for office, to pressure the government, and to insist on the independence of the judiciary

political science

study of governments ,public policies, and political processes, systems, and political behavior

we study politics because...

their processes affect us directly and indirectly
We live in an imperfect world, change is slow, governments seek to improve upon policy and proess

POLITICS

a. the art or science of government
b. the art or science concerned with guiding or influencing governmental policy
c. the art or science concerned with winning and holding control over a government

PLATO (quotes about politics)

"One of the penalties for refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors"

THOMAS JEFFERSON (quotes about politics)

"Politics is such a torment that I advise everyone I love not to mix with it"

WINSTON CHURCHILL (quotes about politics)

"Politics is the ability to foretell what is going to happen, tomorrow, next week, next month and next year. And to have the ability afterwards to explain why it didn't happen"

"Politcs is almost as exciting as war, and quite as dangerous. In war you can only be killed once, but in politics many times."

Robert Dahl 1984 (academic definition of politics)

"Any persistant pattern of human relationships that involves, to a significant extent, control, influence, power or authority."

Kate Millet 1970 (academic definition of politics)

"Power structures relationships, arrangements whereby one group of persons is controlled by another"

Harold Lasswell (academic definition of politics)

"Who gets what, where, when, and how"

Max Weber (statements on government)

an institution in society that has a "monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force"

George Washington (statements about politics)

"Government is not reason, it is not eloquence-it is force."

James Madison (gov't)

If men were angels, no government would be necessary

Thomas Hobbes (gov't)

A world without government would be "a war of all against all" Life would be "nasty, brutish and short"

Property Rights

the exclusive authority to determine how a resource is used, whether that resource is owned by government or by individuals

Control the use of the property
Right to any benefit from the property
Right to transfer or sell the property
Right to exclude others from the property

Almond, Powell, Dalton and Storm (what is government?)

governments are organizations of individuals who have the power to make binding decisions on behalf of a particular community

Anthony Downs's Two Key Functions of Government

1. Every government is the locus of the ultimate power in its society
2. Its social function must at least include acting as the final guarantor behind every use of coercion in the settlement of disputes

Scarce resources

generate conflict

John Adams (government mistrust)

There is danger from all men. The only maxim of a free government ought to be to trust no man living with power to endanger the public liberty

Robert Heinlein (government mistrust)

Love your country, but never trust its government

Thomas Jefferson (government mistrust)

Every government degenerates when trusted to the rulers of the people alone. The people themselves, therefore, are its only safe depositories

P.J. O'Rourke (government mistrust)

Whatever it is the government does, sensible Americans would prefer that the government do it to somebody else

John Arthur Passmore (government mistrust)

Never trust governments absolutely and always do what you can to prevent them from doing to much harm

Government Trust

the public's belief that the government will act in the right way

Chanley, Rudolph, and Rahn (2000)

Citizen trust is necessary for political leaders to make binding decisions, commit resources to attain certain goals without coercion

Hubert H. Humphrey (government mistrust)

Surely anyone who has ever been elected to public office undertants that one commodity above all others, namely the trust and confidence of the people, is fundamental in maintaining a free and open political system

Barack Obama (government mistrust)

If the people cannot trust their government to do the job for which it exists-to protect them and to promote their common welfare- all else is lost

Robert A Dahl (democracy)

"One of the difficulties one must face at the outset is that there is no democracy theory-there are only democratic theories"

"At a minimum, it seems to me, democratic theory is concerned with process which ordinary citizen exert a relatively high degree of control over leaders"

E.E. Schattschneider (democracy)

Semi sovereign People: A realist View of American Democracy

Privatization

Individualism, Free private enterprise, localism, privacy

Socialization

equality, consistency, equal protection, justice, liberty, freedom of movement, freedom of speech, civil rights

Schattschneider

"Democratic government is the greatest single instrument for socialization of conflict int theAmerican community"

"Arguments and debates about federalism, local-state government, centralization de-centralization are all about controlling the scope of the conflict"

Schattschneider's definition of democracy

Democracy is a competitive political system in which competing leaders and organizations define the alternatives of public policy in such a way that the public can participate in the decision-making process

Higher Law Tradition

A constitution sets down an enduring body of principles and arrangements upon which government is founded

Positive-Law Tradition

Constitution makers incorporate practices into the fundamental law which is normally established by statue

Reasons for Amendments

1. Imperfect and educable human nature
2. The efficacy of deliberative process
3. Distinction between normal legislation and constitutional matters

Lutz'a Propositions

1. Longer constitutions will have higher amendment rate that shorter constitutions
2. the more difficult the amendment process the lower the amendment rate
3. the more governmental functions detailed in a constitution, the longer it will be the higher the rate of amendment
4. the further the amendment rate is from the mean level of amendment rate the greater the probability the entire constitution will be replaced

1836

Texas becomes an Independent Nation

1846

Texas is annexed into the US

1866

Texas rejoins the Union

Volden (2006)

Among the potential benefits of federalism is the ability of states to serve as policy laboratories, adopting novel policies to address their needs, abandoning unsuccessful attempts and learning from the successes of similar states

Graham, Shipan, and Volden (2008)

Diffusion occurs when one government's decision about whether to adopt a policy innovation is influenced by previous choices by other governments. Put another way, policy adoptions can be interdependent, where a country or state observes what other countries or states have done and conditions its own policy decisions on these observations.

Emulation of Successes Hypothesis

states having policies that successfully accomplish goals are more likely to be emulated than those that do not

Seeking Low-Cost Successes Hypothesis

in order to avoid policy features, states will especially rely on evidence of success when contracting their program spending

Administrators Emulating Success Hypothesis

Because of their reelection considerations, decisions by legislators will rely heavily on evidence of successes

Similar Stated Hypothesis

Based on competition and policy learning, states are more likely to emulate their geographic neighbors and those with similar political, demographic, and budgetary characteristics

Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)

federal government provided grants to states that provide insurance for children whose families did not qualify for Medicaid, but below 200% of the federal poverty level (FPL)

CHIP Results

-Strong support for emulation of successes - Strong support for low cost hypothesis
- Little Support for administrative hypothesis
-Support for legislators hypothesis
- Support for similar states hypothesis

Professional v. Non-professional legislature

A snowball effect is expected in professional state legislatures
◦ A pressure valve effect is expected in non- professional state legislatures. (anti-smoking laws)

Strong v. Weak Policy Advocates

Strong interest groups will generate a snowball
effect
◦ Weak interest groups will generate a pressure valve effect (anti-smoking laws)

Thomas Dye (public policy)

Public policy is 'anything a government chooses to do or not to do'
DELIBERATE DECISIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT

James Anderson (public policy)

A purposive course of action followed by an actor or a set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern

Policy decisions are made by

a group of actors

William Jenkins

A set of interrelated decisions taken by a political actor or group of actors concerning the selection of goals and the means of achieving them within a specified situation where those decisions should, in principle, be within the power of those actors to achieve

Schneider and Ingram (1993) (policies)

Behavioral change is sought by enabling ot coercing people to do things they would not have done otherwise

Problem Solving

1.Problem Recognition
2.Proposal of Situation
3. Choice of Solution
4. Putting it into effect
5. Monitoring Results

Policy Cycle

1. Agenda-Setting
2. Policy Formation
3. Decision-Making
4. Policy Implementation
5. Policy Evalutation

Agenda Setting-John Kingdon (1995)

The list of subjects or problems to which governmental officials, and people outside of government closely associated with those officials, are paying some serious attention at any given time

Out of the set of all conceivable subjects or problems to which officials could be paying attention, they do in fact seriously attend to some rather than others

So the agenda-setting process narrows this set of conceivable subjects to the set that actually become the focus of attention

Problem Streams

the perceptions of problems as public problems requiring government action

Policy Stream

experts examining problems and proposing solutions to them

Political Stream

A swing in national mood, administrative or legislative turnover, and interest group pressure

Policy Window

The streams operate on different paths and pursue coursed independent of each other. However, when they do intersect they create a policy window

the creation of a policy window helps set the agenda

Policy Formation

the elimination of policy options, until one or only a few are left amongst which the policy-makers make their final selection

(must recognize limitations)

Decision Making- Gary Brewer and Peter DeLeon (1983)

"The choice among policy alternatives that have been generated and their likely effects on the problem estimated"

"It is the most overtly political stage in so far as the many potential solutions to a given problem must somehow be winnowed down and but one or a select few picked and readied for use"

"Decided not to take articular coursed of action is as much a part of selection as finally settling on the best course"

Rational Model of Decision Making

1. Goal for solving problem is established
2.Al alternative strategies of achieving the goal are explored and listed
3. All significant consequences of each alternative strategy are predicted and the probability of those consequences occurring is eliminated
4. The strategy that most nearly solves the problem or solves it at the least cost is selected

Rational Model Problems

1. limits to the decision makers ability to consider all possible options
2. assumes that decision makers know the consequences in advance
3. comparisons among alternatives are difficult

Incremental Model

Portrays public policy decision making as a process characterized by bargaining and compromise among self-interested decision makers (solving problems at hand rather than lofty goals)

Incremental Model Problems

1. Lack of any kind of goal orientation
2. Inherently conservative
3. Undemocratic
4. Promotes short sighted decisions
5. More characteristic of decision making in a stable environment

Garbage Can Model

Actors define goals and choose means as they go along in a process which is necessarily contingent and unpredictable (March and Olsen)

Policy Implementation

The process whereby programs or policies are carried out; it denotes the translations of plans into practice

Garbage Can Model Problems

1. Policy decisions involve varying degrees of technical difficulties during implementation
2. The diversity of problems targeted by a program may make its implementation difficult
3.The size of the target group
4.Extent of behavioral change

March and Olsen (Garbage Can Model)

"A garbage can into which various problems and solutions are dumped by participants. The mix of garbage in a single can depends partly on the labels attached to the alternative cans; but it also depends on what garbage is being produced at the moment, on the mix of can available, and on the speed with which garbage is collected and removed from the scene."

Policy Instruments

The actual means or devices which governments have at their disposal for implementing policies, and from which they must select

1.Voluntary
2.Compulsory
3.Mixed

Regulation

rules and standards that control economic social and political activities
1.natural monopoly
2.externalities
3.protecting the uninformed

Policy evaluation

the process of finding out about public policy in action the means being employed and the objectives being served

Administrative Evaluation

intende to ensure that policies are accomplishing their expected goals at the least possible cost and least possible burden on citizens

Judicial Evaluation

concerned with possible conflicts between government action and constitutional provisions or established standards of administrative conduct and individual rights

Political Evaluation

attempt to label a policy a success or a failure followed by demands for continuation or change

Domestic Policy

government programs and regulations that directly affect those living within a country

Social Policy

domestic policy programs designed to help those thought to be in need of government assistance

Fiscal Policy

the sum of government taxing and spending decisions, which determines the level of the deficit or surplus

Welfare State (Peterson 1985)

EX social security, unemployment insurance, medicare and medicaid

Welfare Regime

(Hacker 2002)
1.the network of direct-spending social programs
2. the constellation of more indirect or "hidden" government interventions
3. Private social protections

TARP

(Troubled Asset Relief Program)
Program to purchase assets and equity from financial institutions such as AIG or GM to strengthen the financial sector (stabilizes institutions and slows further loss)
(Oct 3, 2008 by Bush)

Health Care Reform (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act)

Designed to address the ever increasing costs of medical care in US (signed into law on March 23, 2012 by President Obama)
reduced national deficit

Personal (Orlando Patterson)

giving a person the sense that, on the one hand, he or she is not coerced or restrained by another person in doing something desired, and, on the other hand, that one can do as one pleases within the limits of that other person's desire to do the same

Sovereignal (orlando Patterson)

the power to act as one pleases, without regard for others or simply the ability to impose one's will on another

Civic (Orlando Patterson)

the capacity of adult members of a community to participate in its life and governece

Foner's natural Rights

rights or freedoms inherent in one's humanity are what Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence refereed to as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
1. Civil Rights (equality under law)
2. Political Rights (right to vote)
3. Social Rights (freely choose associates)

Liberal Freedom (Richard King)

absence of arbitrary legal or institutional restrictions on the individual, including the idea that all citizens are to be equally treated

Susie Phipps v. State of Louisiana

1982 Susie challenged her racial designation as "colored" (1/32 of negro blood)
Lost case

1965 Executive Order 11246 (Lyndon Johnson)

requires federal contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or origin"

Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc.

Supreme Court ruled that same-sex sexual harassment is a form of discrimination protected by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

Negative Rights

-right to be left alone
-restriction on what the government or other people can do to you
(freedom of speech and freedom of religion)

Positive Rights

-the right to have something
(right to adequate nutrition and right to housing)

Pluralistic Intolerance

the likelihood that intolerance will be benign rised if it is unfocused (James L. Gibson 2008)

Texas v. Oprah

cattle companies and feeder companies sue Oprah for an episode on her shoe on BSE

Fourth Amendment

the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, and papers searches and seizures, shall not be violated

Mapp v Ohio (1961)

improperly obtained evidence cannot be used in court

Washington v Chrisman (1982)

Protection did not extend to dormitory rooms on college campuses

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

Police officers are required to tell suspects their rights before being questioned

1999 Religious Freedom Act

Prohibits a government agency, state, or local, from substantively interfering with the free exercise of religion unless the agency can demonstrate that it acted from a compelling interest and had used the least restrictive means of furthering that interest.

The cases of District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) and McDonald v. Chicago (2010)

limited the laws that governments could pass restricting gun ownership.

In the case of Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Supreme Court ruled that President Andrew Jackson's policy of removing Cherokee Indians from their land was unconstitutional. Jackson ignored this ruling and said of the Court: "They made their decision. Now, let them enforce it." Which of the following concepts was most clearly undermined in this episode?

the legitimacy of courts as arbiter

In response to social movements by women and eighteen- to twenty-year-olds, respectively, the Nineteenth and Twenty-sixth Amendments guaranteed these groups the right to:

vote

The Bill of Rights is comprised of:

the first 10 amendments to the constitution

Which of the following countries does not have a ban on speech that incites hatred?

US

The First Amendment states that Congress shall make no law abridging the right of the people peaceably to assemble. This provision is an example of:

a civil liberty

The Fourth through Eight Amendments of the Constitution all include provisions related to:

rights of criminal defendants

In the case of Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan (1982), the Supreme Court ruled that the Mississippi University for Women's School of Nursing violated the Fourteenth Amendment by not admitting men into their program. In evaluating the constitutionality of admissions, the Court made its decision based on whether the policy of only admitting women served a governmental goal of providing educational opportunities for all citizens and whether providing a unique opportunity for females but not males had a substantial relationship to that interest. What standard was being applied in this case?

intermediate scrutiny

The Supreme Court's controversial decision of Korematsu v. United States (1944) upheld what policy?

the internment of Japanese-Americans

The University of Michigan Law School allows race as a factor in admissions. Applicants from a minority group that has been previously discriminated against are considered a little more favorably than applicants not from that group. This policy is an example of:

affirmative action

The right to legal protections against arbitrary deprivation of life, liberty, or property is called:

due process

In the case of Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company v. Chicago (1897), the Supreme Court ruled that the states had to abide by the clause of the Fifth Amendment mandating that private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. What principle was the Court applying in this decision?

incorporation

civil liberties:

are freedoms protected from interference by the government or by others, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion.

Jim crow laws were:

laws passed after the Civil War to establish a system of segregation of public facilities and private establishments that made African Americans second-class citizens.

American courts often make decisions by relying on the principle of stare decisis, meaning that they use the legal precedents set by prior court decisions. With regard to protecting civil rights and civil liberties, why might this principle be a bad idea?

If a major court decision undermines rights and liberties, then it might stand longer.

How can rights and liberties be threatened in a democracy?

A majority can enact laws that take away rights and liberties from a minority.

Taxing and spending decisions by governments are part of:

fiscal policy

From 1817 to 1825, the state of New York constructed the Erie Canal to connect the Hudson River to Lake Erie. This created a waterway from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, and the ensuing trade benefited large portions of the population. Construction of the Erie Canal was an example of what kind of policy?

distributive policy

The role of the federal government in the economy has expanded at various times in history. Which of the following programs that expanded economic policy took place during the New Deal?

creation of Social Security

Which economic philosophy advocates that the government take a noninterventionist approach to the economy, leaving market forces alone to determine the economic behavior of people and business firms?

laissez-faire

a movie theatre is an example of a

club good

Which of the following policies could best be classified as a social policy?

offering vouchers to subsidize poor people's rent

Social policy is defined as:

government actions intended to provide a basic level of assistance with income, safety, education, housing, and health care for certain categories of people at risk.

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