psychology exam two

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Some Basic Principles of Sensation and Vision

is the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

Psychophysics

Perceptual sets are the result of _____, which we form to organize and interpret unfamiliar information

schemas

The fact that perceptions involve more than the sum of our sensations best illustrates the importance of

top-down processing.

People perceive an adult-child pair as looking more alike when told they are parent and child. This best illustrates the impact of

perceptual set

The minute you walk into your mother-in-law's house to visit, you are struck by the strong smell of her perfume. However, after about 10 minutes, you no longer notice the smell. This is probably the result of sensory _____.

adaptation

...describes how the amount of light an object reflects is relative to its surroundings.

relative luminance

....refers to how when one object partially blocks our view of another, we see it as closer

interposition.

Retinal disparity is a binocular cue for perceiving depth

retinal disparity.

The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage rather than a constant amount is called:

Weber's law.

Perceptual set may influence which of the following senses?

taste, smell, vision

One study showed that a softball will appear _____ when you are hitting well.

bigger

Sensory adaptation can be defined as:

diminished sensitivity as a result of repeated stimulation

One study showed that a softball will appear _____ when you are hitting poorly.

smaller

Susan asked her roommate to lower the radio as she was trying to study. Her roommate had turned the radio up originally from a volume level of 14 to 15 which was just enough for Susan to detect. She turned it back down to 14 after Susan asked her to lower it. This is probably the result of the _____ threshold.

difference

Weber's law is the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount).

Weber's law.

Parallel processing refers to the processing of multiple aspects of a stimulus simultaneously.

parallel processing.

Accommodation is the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

accommodation.

If you move your watchband up your wrist an inch or so, you will feel it for only a few moments. This best illustrates:

sensory adaptation.

_____ is the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.

priming

Transduction refers to the conversion of one form of _____ into another.

energy

Once John learned of Sara's abusive past, he began to perceive her cautious behavior around men as more self-protective rather than rude. This best illustrates the impact of:

perceptual set

information processing is guided by higher-level mental processes, such as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. This process is called:

top-down processing.

Once John learned of Sara's abusive past, he began to perceive her cautious behavior around men as more self-protective rather than rude. This best illustrates the impact of perceptual _____.

set

Perceptual sets are the result of _____, which we form to organize and interpret unfamiliar information.

schemas

If we stare at an object, it does not disappear because our eyes are _____.

moving

Sensory adaptation allows people to be aware of things that _____.

move

Dennis, a nurse, notes that some parents of asthmatic children respond to very small changes in their children's breathing, and seek care accordingly. However, other parents do not notice the same small changes. This type of difference in reaction to stimuli is best explained by:

the signal detection theory.

Racial and ethnic stereotypes can sometimes bias our perceptions of others' behaviors. This best illustrates the impact of:

top-down processing.

The difference threshold is the minimum difference that a person can detect between any two stimuli _____ percent of the time.

50

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