Standard Anatomical Position
front of the body, facing foward, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs pointing away from body.
explain where one body structure is in relation to another.
is toward the head end or upper part of body structure (above, top). Cephalic (head) is superior to the Pubic (genital)
is away from head end or lower part of body structure (below, bottom). Pubic (genital) is inferior to the Cephalic (head)
is toward the front of body (forward). Abdominal (stomach) is anterior to the Vertebral (spine)
is toward the back of body (backward). Vertebral (spine) is posterior to the Abdominal (stomach)
is toward the midline of body (middle). Sternal (chest) is medial to the Axillary (armpit)
is away from midline of body (outwards). Axillary (armpit) is lateral to the Sternal (chest)
is between a more medial and more lateral structure. Mammary (nipple) is intermediate to the Axillary (armpit) and Sternal (chest)
is closer to the point of attachment to the body trunk. Brachial (arm) is proximal to the Carpal (wrist)
is farther from the point of attachment to the body trunk. Manus (hand) is distal to the Olecranal (elbow)
is toward the body surface. Skin is superficial to the Heart.
is away from body surface. Heart is deep to the skin
Back of head
Mid chest area
Abdominal (stomach area)
Umbillical (belly button)
Pelvic (below stomach)
Lower right and left back
In between anus and genitalia
Frontside of elbow
Top of hand
Palm of hand
Shin, front of lower leg
Outside of lower leg
Calf, back of lower leg
Top of foot
Bottom of foot
Body Planes and Sections:
body is sectioned (cut) along flat surface called a plane.
is vertical that divides the body into right and left parts.
Median or Midsagittal plane
is a sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline.
Parasagittal planes (para=near)
All other planes which offset from the midline.
Frontal (coronal) planes
lay vertically, divide the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts.
Transverse (horizontal) plane
also called a cross section, runs from right to left, dividing the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) parts.
are cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes.
Dorsal Body cavity (Back)
protects the nervous system contains the cranial cavity (Brain) and the vertebral cavity (Spinal cord).
Ventral Body cavity (Front)
houses internal organs, contains the Thoracic cavity (Heart/Lungs) and the Abdominopelvic cavity.
contains two, right/left pleural (surrounds the lungs) cavities each housing a one lung
Superior Mediastinum cavity
surrounds thoracic organs and contains the trachea, esophagus, major blood vessels, lymphatic, and heart.
surrounded by Pericardium that encloses the heart.
separates the Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavity
has 9 regions and contains the Abdominal and Pelvic cavity.
contains the digestive viscera, stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver.
contains the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and the rectum.
is sideview facing right.
is facing foward or face up view.
Oral (mouth), Digestive (anus), Nasal (nose), Orbital (eyes), Middle Ears (medial to eardrum), Synovial (joint)
Upper left region that contains the liver and gallbladder.
Mid left region that contains the ascending colon of the large intestine.
Right Iliac (Inguinal)
Lower left region that contains the cecum and appendix.
Upper mid region that contains the stomach
Mid region that contains the small intestine and transverse colon of the large intestine.
Lower mid region that contains the urinary bladder.
Upper right region under diaphragm and next to epigastric.
Mid right region that contains the descending colon of the large intestine.
Left Iliac (Inguinal)
Lower right region that has the initial part of the sigmoid colon.