psychology exam two

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Vision, hearing and other senses

According to the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory, the retina has three types of color receptors. Each of these types is sensitive to one of three colors: _____, green, or blue.

red

Interposition occurs when one object partially blocks our view of another; we perceive it as _____.

closer

Relative luminance most clearly contributes to _____ constancy.

brightness

Immanuel Kant and John Locke would have been most likely to disagree about the extent to which perception is influenced by:

experience.

Multiple _____ send combined messages to a bipolar cell, whereas a single _____ may link directly to a single bipolar cell.

rods; cone

According to the Young-Helmholtz _____ theory, the retina has three types of color receptors. Each of these types is sensitive to one of three colors: red, green, or blue.

trichromatic

This is an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.

the phi phenomenon

an illusion of movement, not relative luminance.

the phi phenomenon.

a monocular depth cue and is not related to relative luminance.

linear perspective.

Relative luminance most clearly contributes to:

lightness constancy.

Stefan has volunteered to participate in an experiment studying vision. He has agreed to wear a pair of glasses that invert his vision. Due to _____, after about a week, he is able to perform his usual tasks, like riding a bike or reading a book.

perceptual adaptation

Wavelength refers to the distance from the _____ of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.

peak

People can discriminate more than one ______ color variations.

million

_____ occurs when one object partially blocks our view of another; we perceive it as closer.

Interposition

how we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object.
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closure.

the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input.
Try again, check the e-book, GE

extrasensory perception.

in vision, is the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

perceptual adaptation.

The ability to accurately perceive distances most clearly underlies our capacity for:

size constancy.

In terms of _____, perceptual adaptation is the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or inverted visual field.

vision

The ring of muscle tissue that controls the size of the _____ is called the iris.

pupil

What theory is most useful for explaining the characteristics of afterimages?

opponent-process theory

According to the Gestalt psychologists, we tend to fill in the gaps to create a complete, whole object. This is called the principle of _____.

closure

Researchers used goggles to restrict kittens' vision for several months. Once the goggles were removed, the kittens:

could distinguish only color and brightness.

The opponent-process theory is most useful for explaining the characteristics of:

afterimages.

The Moon illusion refers to our tendency to perceive the Moon as unusually _____ when it is near the horizon.

large

What happens during accommodation?

The lens changes its curvature to focus on an image.

In a brain surgery that went wrong, Matthew lost a portion of his _____ cortex and has blindness in part of his field of vision. This condition is known as blindsight.

visual

At Cornell University, Gibson and Walk placed infants on the edge of a safe canyon to determine whether crawling infants and newborn animals can perceive _____. This famous experiment is known as the visual cliff.

depth

In terms of our sensory experience of light, wavelength is to _____, as wave intensity is to brightness.

hue

Researchers used goggles to restrict kittens' vision for several months. Once the goggles were removed, the kittens could distinguish only color and _____.

brightness

If the eye takes in an inverted image of the world, how do we see the world correctly?

The brain reassembles the image.

According to the Gestalt psychologists, we perceive smooth, unbroken patterns rather than broken ones. This is called the principle of:

continuity.

Psychologist George _____ conducted a famous experiment on perceptual adaptation in which he wore a pair of glasses that inverted his vision for 8 days.

Stratton

About 30% of the _____ is required for facial recognition.

cortex

Our perceptual tendency to organize stimuli coherently is known as _____.

grouping

Visual information is processed by ganglion cells after it is processed by rods and cones and _____ it is processed by bipolar cells.

after

The ring of muscle tissue that controls the pupil's size is called the:

iris.

The phenomenon of _____ best illustrates that visual information can be processed without conscious awareness.

blindsight

he central focal point in the retina where cones are heavily concentrated is known as the:

fovea.

Rules for organizing stimuli into coherent groups were first identified by:

Gestalt psychologists.

The lens is the transparent structure behind the _____ that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.

pupil

Multiple _____ send combined messages to a bipolar cell, whereas a single cone may link directly to a single bipolar cell.

rods

The _____ is the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye.

blind spot

Visual information is processed by ganglion cells _____ it is processed by rods and cones and AFTER it is processed by bipolar cells.

after

_____ is the result of the transformation of vibrating air into nerve impulses that are interpreted by the brain.

Hearing

The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are three tiny _____ that transmit vibrations to the cochlea.

bones

The volley principle is most relevant to understanding how we sense:

pitch

_____ is to possible hearing damage, as pain is to possible bodily harm.

Ringing of the ears

The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are three tiny bones that make up the _____ ear.

middle

We feel sounds as _____ that are conducted through our bones.

vibrations

The cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs make up the:

inner ear.

This coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses is called the:

cochlea.

Most hearing loss is a result of damage to the:

hair cells.

The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are three tiny bones that transmit vibrations to the:

cochlea

Conduction hearing loss occurs when the eardrum is punctured or if the tiny bones in the middle ear lose their ability to _____.

vibrate

Hermann von Helmholtz said that we hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea's _____ membrane. His theory is called place theory.

basilar

We feel sounds as vibrations that are conducted through our bones. It follows that _____ is a special form of touch sensation.

hearing

The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time is known as:

frequency.

The hammer, anvil, and _____ are three tiny bones that transmit vibrations to the cochlea.

stirrup

The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are three tiny bones that make up the:

middle ear

The strength of a sound wave (i.e., the amplitude of the wave) determines what aspect of hearing?

loudness

As John was leaving the rock concert, he was unable to hear his friend talking next to him in the normal conversational tone of _____ decibels because the music was well over 130 decibels.

60

Nociceptors initiate the sensation of:

pain.

The claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input is known as:

extrasensory perception.

While at work Tim experiences a ringing-in-the-ears sensation known as:

tinnitus.

For some people, taking in certain _____ evokes the taste sensation.

odors

Several days ago, Ravi fell and hurt his ankle. Although it bothered him a little, he continued to walk on it. When he finally went to the doctor for x-rays, he found out he had a broken bone. It is likely that Ravi carries a gene that boosts the availability of:

endorphins.

For some people, taking in certain odors evokes the _____ sensation.

taste

While at work Tim experiences a ringing-in-the-ears sensation known as _____ sounds.

phantom

A potato chip can "taste" stale because our sense of taste interacts with our sense of _____.

touch

Infant rats deprived of their mothers' grooming touch produce _____ growth hormone and have a lower metabolic rate.

less

A potato chip can "taste" stale because our sense of taste _____ with our sense of touch.

interacts

The practice of _____ is based on the theory that one way to block pain messages is to create competing stimulation. This in turn is based on the gate-control theory of pain.

acupuncture

The study of paranormal phenomena is known as _____.

parapsychology

Lucy is convinced she smells rotten eggs, but no one in the house can smell the odor. Lucy's sensation is known as _____ smells.

phantom

The study of paranormal phenomena is known as:

parapsychology.

Melzak and Wall theorized that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that either blocks _____ signals or allows them to pass on to the brain.

pain

sychics working with police departments often provide police with:

hundreds of predictions.

hundreds of predictions.

virtual reality

In January of 2000, psychologist Richard Wiseman created a "mind machine" that would allow people to attempt psychic ability by allowing them to predict a coin toss. When the experiment concluded, what was the overall accuracy of the general public?

nearly half correct

Lucy is convinced she smells rotten eggs, but no one in the house can smell the odor. Lucy's sensation is known as:

phantom smells.

The claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input is known as _____ perception.apart from sensory input is known as _____ perception.

extrasensory

Infant rats deprived of their mothers' grooming touch produce less growth hormone and have a lower _____ rate.

metabolic

Receptor cells for the vestibular sense send messages to the:

cerebellum

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