the hindsight bias
After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates:
When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that orange juice consumption triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne's reaction best illustrates:
Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management exemplifies:
Which research technique is most directly useful for avoiding the thinking error known as the false consensus effect?
Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter employing?
higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of physical health
A negative correlation between people's physical health and their marital happiness would indicate that:
correlation does not prove causation
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that:
Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?
In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to:
In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep deprivation, alertness would be the:
level of sexual stimulation
In order to assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable consisted of:
One person in a ten-person group is ten times older than any of the other members. With respect to age, it is most likely that the majority of group members are younger than the group's:
Janet has five brothers who are 4, 6, 6, 9, and 15 years of age. The mean age of Janet's brothers is: