The Jovian Planets

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The solid surface of Jupiter lies just below the cloud layers that are visible from Earth.

False

Jupiter emits more energy than it receives from the Sun

True

Although often referred to as a gaseous planet, Jupiter is mostly liquid in its interior.

True

The magnetic fields of both Uranus and Neptune are highly tilted relative to their rotation axes and significantly offset from the planets' centers.

True

The main constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere is

Hydrogen

Saturn's cloud layers are much thicker than those of Jupiter because Saturn has

Weaker surface gravity

Uranus was discovered about the same time as

The U.S. Declaration of Independence

Compared with Uranus, the planet Neptune is

Roughly the same size

Our most detailed knowledge of Uranus and Neptune comes from

Spacecraft exploration

Which three played a role in the finding of Neptune?

Adams, Leverrier, and Galle

Small deviations in a planet's orbital motion

imply the nearby presence of a massive body.

Adams and Leverrier both predicted the position of Neptune, based on its effects on:

Uranus.

Uranus was discovered

less than 250 years ago.

At which planet can the pole remain in darkness for 42 years, then have 42 years of constant daylight?

Uranus

In terms of axial tilt, which of the jovians shows us the largest inclination?

Uranus

If you could find a bathtub big enough for Saturn, the planet would:

Float

The planet whose pole was facing the Sun when Voyager 2 approached in 1986 was

Uranus

Which of these is true about the seasons of Uranus?

Its strange tilt produces extreme seasonal variations, especially at the poles

The reason the jovian planets lost very little of their original atmosphere is due to their

Large mass

Studying the magnetospheres of the jovians has allowed us to measure their

Rotation rate

Essentially, the Great Red Spot is

a large cyclonic storm (hurricane).

Alternating zones of rising and sinking gas in Jupiter's atmosphere

create light and dark bands.

Which planet had the Great Dark Spot in 1989, but had lost it by 1995?

Neptune

The magnetic field tilts of which two bodies are the most unusual?

Uranus and Neptune

What is the source of Jupiter's intense radio waves and magnetism?

liquid metallic hydrogen swirling in the rapidly spinning mantle

Jupiter gives back into space twice the energy it gets from the distant Sun. Where is this energy coming from, for the most part?

the slow escape of gravitational energy left from its formation

What is true of Jupiter's magnetosphere?

It has a tail that extends at least to Saturn's orbit.

What is thought to lie at the center of Jupiter?

a massive core of rocky materials with some iron mixed in

Differential rotation is when a planet's equator and polar regions rotate at different rates.

True

The zonal flows giving rise to the belts and zones are similar to the jet streams in our own stratosphere.

True

While hydrogen, helium, water, and ammonia can produce the white coloration of Jupiter's zones, the brownish color of the belts requires more complex chemistry

True

We have observed a comet strike Jupiter.

True

Jupiter's magnetic field is much stronger than Earth's, and has a magnetic tail that extends beyond the orbit of Saturn

True

Jupiter puts back into space twice the energy it gets from the Sun

True

William Herschel was the discoverer of Uranus.

True

Changes in the predicted motion of Uranus led to the search for an eighth planet

True

Saturn is less dense than water.

True

The axial tilts of Uranus and Neptune are similar

False

Helium is more abundant at Saturn than at Jupiter.

False

Although it is almost the same size as Jupiter, Saturn's gravity is about 2.5 times less, because of Saturn's lower mass and density

True

Uranus' rotation axis is tipped over 98 degrees, so its magnetosphere is tipped over the same amount

False

Neptune has a larger fraction of methane in its atmosphere than Uranus.

True

The two outer jovians appear bluish in color because

methane gas in their atmospheres absorbs red light well.

A gravitational assist, or slingshot, can be used to either speed up or slow down a spacecraft.

True

Galileo's early telescopes revealed the four large moons of Jupiter, the rings of Saturn, and its large moon Titan.

False

Like the discovery of Uranus, the finding of Neptune was accidental.

False

All four jovian planets are made primarily of hydrogen and oxygen

False

All four jovians spin faster than any of the terrestrials.

True

Jupiter's Great Red Spot is similar to a hurricane on Earth.

True

Jupiter's atmosphere looks uniform and calm, with no visible detail.

False

There is less ammonia in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune than in Jupiter or Saturn.

True

Methane absorbs red light readily, so we would expect a planet with a mostly methane atmosphere to appear blue.

True

Order of jovian planets and earth by distance to sun

Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

Order of jovian planets and earth ranked by size - smallest to largest

Earth, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter

Order of jovian planets and earth ranked by mass - smallest to largest.

Earth, Uranus, Neptune, Saturn, Jupiter

Order of planets based on surface temperature - hottest to coolest

Mercury, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Neptune - the closer to the sun, the hotter the planet for these partiuclar planets. venus' reflectivity makes it hotter than Mercury.

Order of planets based on orbit times around sun - shortest to longest

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

Order of planets based on number of moons - highest to lowest

Jupiter, Mars, Earth, Mercury

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