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the blood vessels/basic circulatory route

veins=heart=arteries=arterioles=capillaries/tissues= venules=veins

vessels structures

-ARTERIES
-VENIES

ARTERIES

-BLOOD FLOW AWAY FROM HEART
-ARTERIES HAVE THICKER WALL THAN VEINS
-ARTERIES HAVE HIGHEST BLOOD PRESSURE

VEINS

-BLOOD FLOW TOWARD HEART
-VEINS HAVE REGULARLY SPACE VALVES

BLOOD DISTRIBUTION AT REST

*SYSTEMIC VENOUS SYSTEM 64% (carrying blood to heart)
*HEART 7%
*SYSTEMIC CAPILLARIES 7%
*SYSTEMIC ARTERIAL SYSTEM 13%
*PULMONARY CIRCUIT 9%

VESSELS WALL STRUCTURE

*TUNICA INTIMA
*TUNICA MEDIA
*TUNICA EXTERNA

TUNICA INTIMA

made of ENDOTHELIUM, BASEMENT, ELASTIC FIBERS

TUNICA MEDIA

made of SMOOTH MUSCLE, ELASTIC FIBERS

TUNICA EXTERNA

made of COLLAGEN FIBERS, ELASTIC FIBERS

TYPES OF ARTERIES

1) ELASTIC ARTERIES
2) MUSCULAR ARTERIES
3) ARTERIOLES

1) ELASTIC ARTERIES

*more ELASTIC TISSUE than MUSCLE
*LARGER ARTERIES (aorta) TO EXPAND WHEN RECEIVING BLOOD AND RECOIL TO PUSH BLOOD FORWARD.

2) MUSCULAR ARTERIES

*more MUSCLE TISSUE than ELASTIC TISSUE
* GREATER VASOCONTRICTION AND VASODILATION to ADJUST the amount of BLOOD flow through the vessels

3) ARTERIOLES

* SMALL
* DELIVERY TO CAPILLARIES
*NOT TUNICA EXTERNA (not collage fibers)
*RESISTANCE BLOOD VESSELS (another name)
because VASOCONSTRICTION INCREASES RESISTANCE, VASODILATION (relaxation) DECREASES RESISTANCE TO BLOOD FLOW

ANASTOMOSES

*UNION OF 2 OR MORE ARTERIES SUPPLYING THE SAME TISSUE
-BLOCKAGE= *CIRCLE OF WILLIS (underneath brain)
*CORONARY CIRCULATION (heart muscle)
*COLLATERAL CIRCULATION: ALTERNATE ROUTE

CAPILLARIES

-MICROCIRCULATION
-TUBES OF ENDOTHELIUM AND BASEMENT MEMBRANE (TUNICA INTIMA)
-FUNCTION EXCHANGE OF SUBSTANCES.
-FUNCTION LIKE A NET TO FORM CAPILLARY BEDS

CAPILLARY BED STRUCTURE

ARTERIOLES= ARTERIAL CAPILLARY= VENOUS CAPILLARY= VENULE

CAPILLARY TYPES

1) CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES
2) FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES
3) SINUSOIDS CAPILLARIES

1) CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES

-TIGHT FIT
-LEAST PERMEABLE CAPILLARIES
-MOST IMPORTANT IN THE BRAIN

2) FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES

-PORES (holes) THROUGH THE ENDOTHELIUM CELLS
-MEDIUM PERMEABILITY
-MOST IMPORTANT IN THE KIDNEYS

3) SINUSOIDS CAPILLARIES

-LARGE GAPS BETWEEN ENDOTHELIUM CELLS
-HAVE SCANTBASEMENT MEMBRANE
-MORE PERMEABLE CAPILLARIES
-THE LARGER CAPILLARIES
MOST IMPORTANT FOR LIVER

CAPILLARIES EXCHANGE

PASSAGE OF WATER, SOLUTES BETWEEN CAPILLARY BLOOD AND INTERSTITIAL FLUID.

CAPILLARIES EXCHANGE/ 3 WAYS

1) DIFFUSION
2) TRANSCYTOSIS
3)BULK FLOW

1) DIFFUSIOIN

MOVE SOLUTE FROM HIGH TO LOW CONCENTRATION

2) TRANSCYTOSIS

MOVE LARGE MOLECULES by FORMATION OF PINOCYTOTIC VESICLES

3) BULK FLOW

2 TYPES =FILTRATION AND REABSORPTION

3) BULK FLOW/ FILTRATION

- MOVE FLUID AND SOLUTE from capillaries INTO INTERTITIAL FLUID

3) BULK FLOW/ REABSORPTION

- MOVE FLUID AND SOLUTE from interstitial fluid INTO CAPILLARIES

TWO OPPOSING PRESSURES AT WORK

1) BLOOD HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE [ BHP]
2) BLOOD COLLOIDAL OSMOTIC PRESSURE [ BCOP]

1)BLOOD HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE [BHP]

PUSHES FLUID OUT works with FILTRATION

1)BLOOD COLLOIDAL OSMOTIC PRESSURE [BCOP]

"SUCTION" PULLS FLUIS BACK IN works with REABSORPTION

VEINS STRUCTURE

-LARGE VEIN all the walls
-MEDIUM SIZED-VEIN all walls less thicker tunica externa
-VENULE only has tunica externa and endothelium
-FENESTRATED CAPILLARY only pores, endothelium cells, basal lamina

-BLOOD PRESSURE

IS THE FORCE THAT PUSH BLOOD THROUGH THE BLOOD VESSELS

-DIFFERENCE IN BLOOD PRESSURE

PRESSURE GRADIENT

-FLOWS OF BLOOD PRESSURE

FROM HIGHER PRESSURE TO LOWER PRESSURE

-WHICH KIND OF VESSELS HAVE HIGHER AND LOWEST BLOOD PRESSURE

-AORTA HAS HIGHER
-THE VENA CAVA LOWEST
(ARTERIES) blood leaves heart in high pressure and comes back lowest pressure (VEINS)

-BLOOD PRESSURE GRADIENT

1) ARTERIAL 60mmHg
2) CAPILLARY 20mmHg
3) VENOUS 15mmHg

1) ARTERIAL PRESSURE GRADIENT averages 60mmHg

FROM AORTA TO ARTERIOLES

2) CAPILLARY PRESSURE GRADIENT averages 20mmHg

FROM ARTERIOLE side TO VENULE

3) VENOUS PRESSURE GRADIENT averages 15mmHg

FROM VENULES TO VENA CAVA

MEASUREMENTS OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE READINGS

1) SYSTOLIC PRESSURE [SP]
2) DIASTOLE PRESSURE [DP]
3) PULSE PRESSURE [PP]
4) MEAN ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE [MAP]

1) SYSTOLIC PRESSURE [SP]

LEFT VENTRICLE=CONTRACTING= HIGHER NUMBER

2) DIASTOLIC PRESSURE [DP]

LEFT VENTRICLE= RELAXING= LOWER NUMBER

3) PULSE PRESSURE [PP]

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC

4) MEAN ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE [MAP]

DIASTOLE + PULSE divide 3

BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED

-BY MILLIMETERS OF MERCURY [mmHg]
-HIGH # SYSTOLIC
-LOW # DIASTOLIC
- TYPICAL READING 120/80 mmHg
-ABNORMAL REAING 140/90(above) mmHg is HYPERTENSION

VENOUS PRESSURE AND VENOUS RETURN

venous pressure VERY LOW

FACTORS THAT AID IN VENOUS RETURN

1)CONTRACTION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
2)BREATHING
3)VENOUS VALVES

1) CONTRACTION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE

SQUEEZES BLOOD TOWARDS HEART

2) BREATHING

SQUEEZES PULMONARY VEINS

3) VENOUS VALVES

PREVENTS BACKFLOW OF BLOOD

BLOOD FLOW

ARTERIES= FASTEST
CAPILLARIES= SLOWEST

RESISTANCES OF BLOOD FLOW

-INCREASES resistances DECREASES BLOOD FLOW
-for blood flow BLOOD PRESSURE must OVERCOME RESISTANCES
-GREATER resistance in ARTERIOLES called TOTAL PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE [TPR]

BLOOD PRESSURE FORMULA

BLOOD PRESSURE= FLOW x RESISTANCES [R]

BLOOD PRESSURE FORMULA= FLOW

+R causes -FLOW, -R causes +FLOW (opposed)

BLOOD PRESSURE FORMULA= RESISTANCES [R]

+BP causes +FLOW, -BP causes -FLOW (same)

FACTORS AFFECTING FLOW

1) CARDIAC OUTPUT [CO]=amount ejected by left ventricle in ONE MINUTE
2) BLOOD VOLUME [BV] =TOTAL AMOUNT OF BLOOD IN BODY

FACTORS AFFECTING RESISTANCES

1) DIAMETER OF THE BLOOD VESSEL= VASOCONSTRICTION INCREASES RESISTANCE
2) VISCOSITY OF BLOOD= THE #'S OF RBC'S
3) LENGTH OF BLOOD VESSELS= LONGER MORE RESISTANCE

BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION

TWO SYSTEMS FOR REGULATION= 1) LOCAL and 2) CENTRAL

1) LOCAL AUTOREGULATION OF BLOOD FLOW (muscle acts as vasodilators)

TISSUES REGULATE BLOOD FLOW BY VASODILATORS=
O2- =CO2+ = acid+ = NO+ = TISSUE TEMPERATURE+ = INFLAMMATION CHEMICALS SUCH AS HESTIMINE (special condition)

2) CENTRAL CARDIOVASCULAR CENTERS

-CARDIOACCELERATOR, CARDIOINHIBITOR, VASOMOTOR CENTERS IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA
-REGULATE HEART RATE & STROKE VOLUME
-VASOMOTOR CENTER REGULATE VESSELS DIAMETER
- INPUT FROM THE BODY SENSORY RECEPTORS CENTERS & OUTPUT FROM CENTERS TO THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSESLS.

INPUT TO THE CARDIOVASCULAR CENTERS

1) HIGHER BRAIN CENTERS
2) PROPRIOCEPTORS
3) BARORECEPTORS
4) CHEMORECEPTORS

INPUT/ 1) HIGHER BRAIN CENTERS

CEREBRAL CORTEX= ANTICIPATION OF COMPETION
THE HYPOTHALAMUS= EMOTIONS
LIMBIC SYSTEM= BODY TEMPERATURE

INPUT/ 2) PROPRIOCEPTORS

MONITOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OR MOVEMENTS

INPUT/ 3)BARORECEPTORS

MONITOR CAHNGES IN BP IN THE VESSELS

INPUT/ 4) CHEMORECEPTORS

MONITOR CONCENTRATION OF O2, CO2, H+

NEURAL REGULATION OF BP AORTIC AND CAROTIC REFLEXES

3) BARORECEPTORS REFLEXES= a) AORTIC REFLEX b) CAROTIC SINUS REFLEX
4) CHEMORECEPTORS REFLEXS

INPUT= 3) BARORECEPTORS REFLEXES=
a) AORTIC REFLEX

-RECEPTORS ASCENDING AORTA
-SENSORY INPUT CARDIOVASCULAR MEDULLA
-MAINTAINS NORMAL SYSTEMIC BP

INPUT= 3) BARORECEPTORS REFLEXES=
b) CAROTIC SINUS REFLEX

-RECEPTORS IN ARTERY WALL
-SENSORY INPUT CARDIOVASCULAR MEDULLA
-MAINTAINS NORMAL BP

INPUT= 4)CHEMORECEPTORS REFLEXS

-DETECTS CHANGES= O2 decreases HYPOXIA
CO2 increases HYPERCAPNIA, H+ increases ACIDOSIS
-causes STIMULATION OF CARDIOACCELERATORY CENTER
-INCREASES SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION TO HEART AND VESSELS
-INCREASES CARDIAC OUTPUT & BP
- ALSO INCREASES BREATHING RATE

OUTPUT FROM THE CARDIOVASCULAR CENTER

1) HEART
2) BLOOD VESSELS

OUTPUT= 1) HEART

*SYMPATHETIC= INCREASES HEART MUSCLE CONTRACTION FORCE.
*PARASYMPATHETIC= DECREASE THE HEART RATE

OUTPUT= 2) BLOOD VESSELS

* CONTROLS SYMPATHETIC VASOMOTORS
*KEEPS TONIC CONTRACTION CALLED VASOMOTOR TONE (still circulate even when a sleep)

TYPES OF CIRCULATIONS

1) SISTEMIC CIRCULATION
2) PULMONARY CIRCULATION
3) CORONARY CIRCULATION
4) SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION

1) SISTEMIC CIRCULATION

from LEFT VENTRICLE INTO (aorta) ARTERIES & VEINS THEN BACK TO RIGHT ATRIUM

2) PULMONARY CIRCULATION

FROM RIGHT VENTRICLE INTO LUNGS THEN BACK TO LEFT ATRIUM

3) CORONARY CIRCULATION

BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE HEART MUSCLE

4) SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION

GUT, SPLEEN, PANCREAS, AND LIVER

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM consist

FLUID, VESSELS, TISSUES, ORGANS

LYMPHATIC TISSUES

-MUCOSA ASSOCIATED LYMPH TISSSUE [MALT]
-RED BONE MARROW
-TONSILS

LYMPHATIC ORGANS

-LYMPH NODES
-THYMUS
-SPLEEN

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM FUNCTIONS

1) DRAINING EXTRA INTERSTITIAL FLUID
2) DRAINING PLASMA PROTEINS
3) TRANSPORT NUTRIENTS AND HORMONES
4) IMMUNITY- SPECIFIC DEFENSE AGAINST ANTIGENTS BY THE LYMPHOCYTES

LYMPH FORMATION AND FLOW

-FLUID AND PROTEINS COLLECTE BY LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES
-MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND BREATHING
-EMPTY INTO VEINS IN THE SHOULDER- (SUBCLAVIAN VEIN)

LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES

-POCKETS
-ENDOTHELIAL CELLS OVERLAP FPR MANY OVERLAP VALVES
-PICKUP FLUID (LYMPH)
-LACTEALS ARE SPECIAL IN THE SMALL INTESTINE THAT TRANSPORT LIPIDS.

LYMPHATIC CIRCULATION

1) LYMPHATIC VESSELS
2) LYMPHATIC TRUNK
3) LYMPHATIC DUCTS

1) LYMPHATIC VESSELS

-VEINS WITH THIN WALLS AND VALVES
-AFFERENT CARRY INTO LYMPH NODES
-EFFERENT CARRY OUT LYMPH NODES

2) LYMPHATIC TRUNK

-LYMPH PASSES FROM LYMPHATIC VESSELS INTO TRUNK
-BRONCHOMEDIASTINAL, JUGULAR, SUBCLAVIAN, INTESTINAL, LUMBAR LYMPHATIC TRUNKS.

3) LYMPAHTIC DUCTS

THERE ARE TWO DUCTS RIGHT AND THORACIC DUCTS

-RIGHT LYMPHATIC DUCT

SMALLER ONE THAT DRAINS INTO RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN

-THORACIC DUCT

LARGE ONE THAT DRAINS THE REST OF THE BODY INTO LEFT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN

LYMPHATIC CIRCULATION GUIDE

INTERSTITIAL FLUID= LYMPH CAPILLARIES= AFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSELS= LYMPH NODES= EFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSELS= LYMPHATIC TRUNK= LYMPHATIC DUCTS= SUBCLAVIAN VEINS

LYMPHOCYTES types

1) T-lymphocytes
2) B-lymphocytes
3) NATURAL KILLERS lymphocytes

1) T-lymphocytes

-80%
-INTRACELLULAR ANTIGENS DIVIDEN TO PRODUCE=
a) CYTOTOXIC T-cells KILL antigent-bearing CELLS
b) HELPER T-cells ACTIVE T-lymphocytes & B-lymphocytes
c) MEMORY T-cells

2) B-Lymphocytes

-15%
-EXTRACELLULAR ANTIGENTS DIVIDEN TO PRODUCE=
a) PLASMA CELLS
b) MEMORY B-cells

3) NATURAL KILLERS lymphocytes

-5%
-KILLS everything that considers ANTIGENT

LYMPHATIC TISSUES types

1) MUCOSA ASSOCIATED LYMPH TISSUE [MALT]
2) RED BONE MARROW
3) TONSILS

1) MALT

-DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
-APPENDIX
-PEYER'S PATCHES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE
-BRONCHI INTHE RESPIRATORY TRACT

2) RED BONE MARROW

- PRODUCE B- lymphocytes
-NATURAL KILLERS lymphocytes

3) TONSILS-

- DEFENSE AGAINST INHALED AND INGESTED MICROBES
-CONTAIN TONSILAR CRYPTS (CORREGATED) THAT TRAP MICROBES

LYMPHATIC ORGANS

1) LYMPH NODES
2) THYMUS
3) SPLEEN

1) LYMPH NODES

-WELL STRUCTURE=
OUTER CORTEX (B-CELLS), DEEP CORTEX (T-CELLS), MEDULLA (B CELLS)
-FUNCTION= TRIGGER THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
-CERVICAL LYMPH NODES, AXILLARY LYMPH NODES, INGUINAL LYMPHATIC NODES

2) THYMUS

-LOCATED in the MEDIASTINUM above THE HEART
-RIGHT AND LEFT LOBES WITH LOBULES
-LOBULE CORTEX=GROWING T-cells
-LOBULE MEDULLA=MATURE T-cells
-SECRETES= THYMOPOIETIN, THYMULYN, THYMOSIN, HORMONES

3) SPLEEN

-LOCATION: UPPER LEFT
- RED PULP: RED BLOOD CELLS
-WHITE PULP: LYMPHOCYTES
-FUNCTION: FILTERS OLD BLOOD CELLS AND BACTERIA, STORES PLATELETS AND IRON.

BODY DEFENSES

-NON SPECIFIC DEFENSE= two types

-NON SPECIFIC DEFENSE- FIRTS LINE EXTERNAL

1) SKIN
2) MUCOUS MEMBRANE
3) TEARS
4) SALIVA
5) STOMACH ACID

-NON SPECIFIC DEFENSE -SECOND LINE INTERNAL

IMMUNOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE
1) ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEINS
2) NATURAL KILLER [NK] LYMPHOCYTES
3) PHAGOCYTES & MACROPHAGES
4) INFLAMMATION AND FEVER

-SPECIFIC DEFENSE- IMMUNITY

*INNATE IMMUNITY= GENETICALLY DETERMINED AT BIRTH
*ACQUIRED IMMUNITY=EXPOSURE TO ANTIGENTS
-ACTIVE ACQUIRED IMMUNITY= induce or natural exposure to antigents
-PASSIVE ACQUIRE IMMUNITY= induce or natural transfer of antibodies

IMMUNITY

T- &B- LYMPHOCYTES RESPOND TO SPECIFIC ANTIGENTS, TWO TYPES=
1) CELL-MEDIATED
2) ANTOBODY MEDIATED IMMUNITY

1) CELL- MEDIATED

T-LYMPHOCYTES RESPOND TO INTRACELLULAR ANTIGENTS SUCH AS VIRUS, INFECTED CELLS AND TUMOR CELLS

2) ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY

B-LYMPHOCYTES RESPOND TO EXTRACELLULAR ANTIGENTS SUCH AS BACTERIA

CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

types of lymphocytes
1) SUPPRESSOR T-CELLS= limiti activation single stimulus
2) CD4 CELLS= antigent presenting cell [APC], helper T-cell &memory cells
3) CD8 CELLS= cytotoxic T-cells & memory cells

ANTIBODY MEDIATED IMMUNITY

-EXTRACELLULAR enters and binds to B-lymphocytes receptors
-activated then divide into plasma cells & memory cells
-plasma secrete antibody
-antibodies destruction of antigents

ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY

ANTIBODIES DESTROY ANTIGENTS BY:
1) NEUTRALIZATION= TOXINS
2) AGGLUTANATION AND PRECIPITATION= REMOVING
3) ACTIVATION OF COMPLEMENT PROTEINS= DESTROY
4) PHAGOCYTOSIS ACTIVATION
5) OPSONIZATION= COATING PHAGOCYTES
6) STIMULATION OF INFLAMMATION= ACTIVATION MAST CELLS AND BASOPHILS
7) PREVENTION OF ANTIGENTS ADHESION TO CELLS SURFACE.

THE INMMUNE RESPOND

1) PRIMARY RESPOND
2) SECONDARY RESPOND

1) PRIMARY RESPOND

FIRST TIME EXPOSURE TO AN ANTIGEN CAUSES SLOW RISE PRODUCTION, FIRST SMALL IMMUNOGLOBULIN M(lgM) THEN (lgG)

2) SECONDARY RESPOND

SUBSEQUENT EXPOSURES SAME ANTIGEN MEMORY CELLS FASTER ANTIBODIES PRODUCTION MAINLY IMMUNOGLOBULIN G (lgG)

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