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light microscope

pass visible light through a specimen, magnify cellular structures with lenses

brightfield unstained

natural cell

brightfield stained

stained cell

phase contrast

see desnity

DIC

3-D image

fluorescence

UV radiation

confocal

laser image

electron microscope

focus a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface

scanning electron microscope

provides for detailed study of surface of a cell

transmission electron microscope

provides for detailed study of internal structure

cell fractionation

takes cell apart and seperates major organelles from one another

centrifuge

used to fractionate cells and seperate them based on size and density

prokaryotes and eukaryotes

have ctyoplasm/ cytosol, cellular membrane/ plasma membrane/ lipid bilayer, all have chromosomes, ribosomes

prokaryotes

simpler, doman bacteria/ archaea, hold chromosomes in nucleoid, bacteria are always smaller than eukarya

eukaryotes

have lipid- covered membranes around all parts, always larger in size and contain a double bilayered nucleus

higher surface to volume ratio

a smaller cell has _________, facilitating the exchange of materials into/ out of the cell

selective barrier

the plasma membrane functions as a __________, allowing sufficient passages of nutrients and waste

nucleus

contains genes

nuclear envelope

encloses the nucleus, seperates it from ctyoplasm with pores

ribosomes

particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein (create primary structure)

endomembrane system

regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell (factory)

endoplasmic reticulum

big, connected to nuclear envelope

smooth ER

synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates (breaks them down), stores calcium, detoxifies poison are all qualities of...

rough ER

has bound ribosomes, produces proteins and membranes, which are distributed by transport vesicles

golgi apparatus

recieves transport vesicles from rough ER, made of membrane sacs called cisternae, modifies products of rough ER (finishes them and folds them into proteins), and manufactures ceratin macromolecules are all functions of.....

lysosome

a membrane sac of hydrolitic enzymes (breaking), can digest all kinds of macromolecules

phagocytosis

helps intercellular digestion

autophagy

self eating

food vacuoles

formed by phagocytosis

contractile vacuoles

pump excess water out of protist cells

central vacuoles

covered in tonoplast, found in plant cells, hold reserves of important organic compounds and water, metabolic waste

cellular respiration

happen in the mitochondria (glucoes --> ATP)

smooth outer membrane and inner membrane folded into christae

the mitochondria are covered in these 2 membranes

chloroplasts

only found in plants, site of photosynthesis (sunlight--> glucose)

plastids

chloroplasts are members of this family

amloplast

this "plast" stores starch

chromoplast

this "plast" stores any other pigment

stroma

liquid inside the grana

grana

stack of thylakoids

thylakoids

area of photosynthesis

peroxisome

eat/ break down H2O2 into harmless water

cytoskeleton

keep cell shape, anchor organelles, transport organelles, cell mobility are all chracteristics of the...

mictrotubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments

the cytoskeleton is broken up into 3 parts

mictrotubule

thick pipe structure, with a 25 nm diameter, that functions as a cilia/ flagella and organizes chromosomes

lumen

space in tube (15nm)

microfilament

thin wire structure, 7 nm, used for cytoplasmic streaming, and pseudopod

intermediate filaments

not thick pipe/ thin cable; in between, 12-15 nm, used for cell shape and chromosome movement

motor protein

this allows vesicles to "travel" on the cytoskeleton with the use of ATP

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