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1. Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism:
A) element
B) macronutrient
C) magnesium
D) growth factor
E) trace element

macronutrient

2. Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure:
A) element
B) macronutrient
C) water
D) growth factor
E) trace element

trace element

3. An organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided is called a/an:
A) element
B) macronutrient
C) water
D) growth factor
E) trace element

growth factor

4. An important mineral ion of the cytochrome pigments of cellular respiration is:
A) iron
B) zinc
C) calcium
D) magnesium
E) potassium

iron

5. An important mineral ion that is a component of chloroplasts and stabilizer of membranes and ribosomes is:
A) iron
B) zinc
C) calcium
D) magnesium
E) potassium

magnesium

6. The term phototroph refers to an organism that:
A) uses CO2 for its carbon source
B) must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
C) gets energy from sunlight
D) gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
E) does not need a carbon source

gets energy from sunlight

7. The term autotroph refers to an organism that:
A) uses CO2 for its carbon source
B) must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
C) gets energy from sunlight
D) gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
E) does not need a carbon source

uses CO2 for its carbon source

8. The term heterotroph refers to an organism that:
A) uses CO2 for its carbon source
B) must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
C) gets energy from sunlight
D) gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
E) does not need a carbon source

must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs

9. The term chemotroph refers to an organism that:
A) uses CO2 for its carbon source
B) must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
C) gets energy from sunlight
D) gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
E) does not need a carbon source

gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds

10. The methanogens, producers of methane gas, require environments that:
A) have sunlight
B) are very acidic
C) have abundant oxygen and CO2
D) are extremely cold
E) are anaerobic with hydrogen gas and CO2

are anaerobic with hydrogen gas and CO2

11. Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called:
A) saprobes
B) parasites
C) autotrophs
D) lithoautotrophs
E) phototrophs

saprobes

12. The type of photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen:
A) occurs in cyanobacteria
B) does not require CO2 as a reactant
C) occurs in certain bacteria
D) does not require sunlight
E) occurs in algae and plants

occurs in cyanobacteria

13. The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called:
A) facilitated diffusion
B) Diffusion
C) active transport
D) Osmosis net movement of water hi area to lo area
E) endocytosis

Diffusion

14. Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane is called:
A) facilitated diffusion
B) diffusion
C) active transport
D) osmosis
E) endocytosis

Osmosis

15. The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semipermeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and cell expenditure of energy is called:
A) facilitated diffusion
B) diffusion
C) active transport
D) osmosis
E) endocytosis

active transport

16. The movement of substances from higher to lower concentration across a semipermeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier but no energy expenditure is called:
A) facilitated diffusion
B) diffusion
C) active transport
D) osmosis
E) endocytosis

facilitated diffusion

17. The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called:
A) facilitated diffusion
B) diffusion
C) active transport
D) osmosis
E) endocytosis

endocytosis

18. Bacteria living in a freshwater stream that are moved to salty seawater would:
A) be in a hypotonic solution
B) gain water
C) be in a isotonic solution
D) shrivel
E) none of the choices are correct

shrivel

19. Which of the following microorganisms would find hypotonic conditions most detrimental?
A) bacteria
B) protozoa
C) fungi
D) algae
E) cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

20. Which of the following require the cell to use ATP?
A) facilitated diffusion
B) diffusion
C) endocytosis
D) osmosis
E) none of the choices are correct

endocytosis

21. Contractile vacuoles are:
A) used to expel excess water from cells
B) found in bacterial cells
C) important to certain organisms in hypotonic environments
D) protein carriers in cell membranes
E) none of the choices are correct

used to expel excess water from cells

22. Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab benchtop, on the shelf of a 37 C incubator and on the shelf of a 50 C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37 C and 50 C, slight growth out on the benchtop, and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species?
A) halophile
B) mesophile
C) anaerobe
D) psychrophile
E) capnophile

psychrophile

23. Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf, in an anaerobic jar and in a candle jar. After incubation there was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This species is a/an:
A) aerobe
B) anaerobe
C) facultative anaerobe
D) microaerophile
E) capnophile

facultative anaerobe

24. A microorganism that has an optimum growth temperature of 37 C, but can survive short exposure to high temperatures is called a/an:
A) extremophile
B) thermophile
C) psychrophile
D) facultative psychrophile
E) thermoduric

thermoduric

25. An organism that grows slowly in the cold but has an optimum growth temperature of 32 C is called a/an:
A) extremophile
B) thermophile
C) psychrophile
D) facultative psychrophile
E) thermoduric

facultative psychrophile

26. An organism with a temperature growth range of 45 C to 60 C would be called a/an:
A) extremophile
B) thermophile
C) psychrophile
D) facultative psychrophile
E) thermoduric

thermophile

27. All of the following could find a location in or on body tissues suitable for growth except:
A) psychrophiles
B) anaerobes
C) facultative anaerobes
D) mesophiles
E) capnophiles

psychrophiles

28. A microorganism that does not have catalase or superoxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with:
A) carbon dioxide
B) oxygen
C) high salt
D) temperatures above 37 C
E) high acidity

oxygen

29. A microaerophile:
A) grows best in an anaerobic jar
B) grows with or without oxygen
C) needs normal atmospheric levels of oxygen
D) requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels
E) none of the choices are correct

requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels

30. A halophile would grow best in:
A) acid pools
B) fresh water ponds
C) hot geyser springs
D) arid, desert soil
E) salt lakes

salt lakes

31. The E. coli that normally live in the human large intestines and produce vitamin K that the body uses would be best termed a _____ relationship.
A) parasitic
B) saprobic
C) commensal
D) mutualistic
E) none of the choices are correct

mutualistic

32. The time interval from parent cell to two new daughter cells is called the:
A) binary fission
B) growth curve
C) generation time
D) death phase
E) culture time

binary fission

33. The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which the rate of multiplication equals the rate of cell death is the:
A) lag phase
B) log phase
C) stationary phase
D) death phase
E) all of the choices are correct

stationary phase

34. The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which newly inoculated cells are adjusting to their new environment, metabolizing but not growing is the:
A) lag phase
B) log phase
C) stationary phase
D) death phase
E) all of the choices are correct

lag phase

35. In the viable plate count method, a measured sample of a culture is evenly spread across an agar surface and incubated. Each _____ represents one _____ from the sample.
A) cell, cell
B) cell, colony
C) colony, cell
D) species, colony
E) generation, cell

colony, cell

36. Most microorganisms on earth can only live and survive in habitats that are similar to human body conditions.
A) True
B) False

...

37. Saprobes do not need a carbon source for growth and metabolism.
A) True
B) False

...

38. Phosphorus is one of the major elements needed in larger quantities by microorganisms.
A) True
B) False

...

39. Lithoautotrophs use inorganic nutrients for carbon and energy sources.
A) True
B) False

...

40. Facilitated diffusion and active transport require a carrier protein to mediate the movement across the plasma membrane.
A) True
B) False

...

41. Bacteria have an average generation time of 24 hours.
A) True
B) False

...

42. The time that it takes for a freshly inoculated agar culture to develop visible colonies is principally governed by that species generation time.
A) True
B) False

...

43. In a commensal relationship, the commensal benefits but the cohabitant is neither harmed nor benefited.
A) True
B) False

...

44. Transverse binary fission results in 4 daughter cells from 1 parent cell.
A) True
B) False

...

45. After binary fission, daughter cells will differ genetically.
A) True
B) False

...

46. A closed culture system is used to determine a population growth curve.
A) True
B) False

...

47. The degree of turbidity in a culture correlates to the amount of cell growth.
A) True
B) False

True

48. The direct cell count, using a cytometer, can quantitate viable cell numbers from a sample.
A) True
B) False

...

49. Microorganisms that live in severe habitats, such as very hot, acidic, or salty environments, are called _____.

...

50. Organisms called _____ live on or in the body of a host and cause some degree of harm.

...

51. When whole cells or large molecules in solution are engulfed by a cell, this endocytosis is specifically termed _____.

...

52. Mediated transport of polar molecules and ions across the plasma membrane utilizes a _____ _____ that will bind to the substance effecting a conformational change that allows movement across the membrane.

...

53. An organism that uses CO2 for its carbon needs would be called a/an _____.

...

54. In _____ conditions, the cell wall will help prevent the cell from bursting.

...

55. The toxic superoxide ion is converted to harmless oxygen by two enzymes: _____ and _____.

...

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