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Revolution of 1800

the election of 1800 in which Jefferson emerged as the victor

patronage

political parties granted jobs and favors to party regulars who delivered votes on election day (conflict within Republican party)

Judiciary Act of 1801

passed by the departing federalist congress, it created sixteen new federal judgeships ensuring a federalist hold on the judiciary

midnight judges

federal justices appointed by John Adams during the last days of his presidency; positions revoked when the newly elected Republican Congress repealed the Judiciary Act

Marbury Vs. Madison

SC case that established the principle of "judicial review" (idea that SC had the final authority to determine constitutionality)

Tripolitan War

four-year conflict between the American navy and the North African nation of Tripoli over piracy in the Mediterranean; Jefferson deployed American forces and secured a peace treaty with Tripoli

Louisiana Purchase

acquisition of LA from France; doubled US territory

Corps of Discovery

team of adventurers led by Lewis and Clark, sent by Jefferson to explore LA territory; found water route to Pacific

orders in council

edicts issued by the British crown closing French-owned European ports to foreign shipping; French cut off American merchants from trade with both parties

impressment

act of forcibly drafting an individual into a military service (British navy against US seamen in times of war against France)

Chesapeake affair

conflict between Britain and US that precipitated the 1807 embargo; British ships fired on America Chesapeake off of VA coast

embargo act

enacted in response to British and French mistreatment of AM merchants, banned exports of all goods from US to any foreign port; strains on US eco not European eco

non-intercourse act

passed alongside the repeal of the embargo act; reopened trade with all nations but BR and FR

Macon's Bill No. 2

aimed at resuming peaceful trade with BR and FR; Napolean offered to lift restrictions on BR ports, so america was forced to declare embargo

war hawks

demo-republican congressmen who pressed Madison to declare war on BR (resented BR constraint on AM trade)

Battle of Tippecanoe

resulted in defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa at hands of William Henry Harrison in Indiana; Tecumseh forged an alliance with the British against the US

Sally Hemmings

slave that Jefferson was rumored to be intimate with; confirmed through DNA testing

Albert Gallatin

secretary of treasury to Hamilton; "watchdog of the treasury"

John Marshall

chief Justice of the supreme court; served at Valley Forge; federalist

Samuel Chase

SC justice who Republicans wanted impeached

Napoleon

sold all of LA and gave up his dream for a New World empire

Robert Livingston

American minister who negotiated in Paris for New Orleans when asked how much he would pay for all LA; signed for all of LA for 15 million dollars

Toussaint LOuverture

ex-slave who was betrayed by the French and indirectly set up the sale of LA to the US

Lewis and Clark

on Corps of discovery around newly purchased LA territory

Aaron Burr

Jefferson's first term VP, federalist extremist plotted secession of New England and New York; Hamilton foiled the plan; killed Hamilton in a duel

Madison

fourth president;

Tecumseh

Shawnee brother who welded together confederacy of Indian tribes in the Mississippi area

Tenskwatawa

"the Prophet" Indian to non-Indians

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