Chapter 7: Learning

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Psychology Central Michigan Bryan Gibson

Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates:

A. The law of effect.
B. Spontaneous recovery.
C. Respondent behavior.
D. Associative learning.

D. Associative learning.

John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of

A. observable behavior.
B. cognitive processes.
C. genetic predispositions.
D. all of these factors.

A. observable behavior.

Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n)

A. primary reinforcer.
B. unconditional stimulus.
C. immediate reinforcer.
D. conditioned stimulus

D. conditioned stimulus

Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a:

A. UR.
B. US.
C. CR.
D. CS.

A. UR.

Conditioning seldom occurs when a ________ comes after a(n) _____.

A. CS; US
B. UR; CS
C. secondary reinforcer; operant behavior
D. negative reinforcer; operant behavior

A. CS; US

Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates:

A. latent learning.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. delayed reinforcement.
D. shaping.

B. spontaneous recovery.

A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates

A. an unconditioned response.
B. operant conditioning.
C. latent learning.
D. generalization.

D. generalization.

The predictability of an association between a CS and a US facilitates an organism's ability to anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a ________ perspective.

A. biological
B. behaviorist
C. cognitive
D. social-cultural

B. behaviorist

The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by

A. Pavlov's studies of conditioned salivation.
B. Garcia and Koelling's research on taste aversion.
C. Skinner's experiments on reinforcement.
D. Watson and Rayner's findings on fear conditioning.

C. Skinner's experiments on reinforcement.

In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as

A. Generalization.
B. Partial reinforcement.
C. Spontaneous recovery.
D. shaping.

D. shaping.

If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.

A. Partial
B. Primary
C. conditioned
D. delayed

C. conditioned

Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

A. fixed-interval
B. variable-interval
C. fixed-ratio
D. variable-ratio

C. fixed-ratio

If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates:

A. operant conditioning.
B. observational learning.
C. respondent behavior.
D. spontaneous recovery.

B. observational learning.

If you have a "frightening experience" immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates

A. generalization.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. classical conditioning.
D. the law of effect.

C. classical conditioning.

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n)

A. negative reinforcer.
B. conditioned stimulus.
C. conditioned reinforcer.
D. unconditioned stimulus.

D. unconditioned stimulus.

You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a

A. UR.
B. US.
C. CR.
D. CS.

C. CR.

People have been observed to form negative attitudes toward Pokemon characters who were repeatedly shown with negative words and images next to them. This best illustrates the impact of

A. classical conditioning.
B. the law of effect.
C. negative reinforcers.
D. intrinsic motivation.

A. classical conditioning.

People have been observed to form negative attitudes toward Pokemon characters who were repeatedly shown with negative words and images next to them. This best illustrates the impact of:

A. classical conditioning.
B. the law of effect.
C negative reinforcers.
D. intrinsic motivation.

A. classical conditioning.

After being bitten by his neighbor's dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of

A. Extinction.
B. Discrimination.
C. Conditioned reinforcement.
D. Latent learning.

B. Discrimination.

If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by

A. intrinsic motivation.
B. biological predispositions.
C. conditioned reinforcers.
D. the law of effect.

B. biological predispositions.

If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates

A. spontaneous recovery.
B. respondent behavior.
C. operant conditioning.
D. latent learning.

C. operant conditioning.

Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of

A. Respondent behavior.
B. Negative reinforcement.
C. Secondary reinforcement.
D. Spontaneous recovery.

B. Negative reinforcement.

A word of praise is to a soothing back rub as ________ is to ________.

A. delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer
B. operant conditioning; classical conditioning
C. partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
D. conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer

D. conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer

A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustrates

A. generalization.
B. latent learning.
C. partial reinforcement.
D. higher-order conditioning.

C. partial reinforcement.

For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.

A. fixed-interval
B. variable-interval
C. fixed-ratio
D. variable-ratio

D. variable-ratio

To reduce the personally harmful behavior of some self-destructive children, therapists have squirted water in their faces whenever they bite themselves. The squirt of water is a

A. conditioned reinforcer.
B. negative reinforcer.
C. primary reinforcer.
D. punishment.

D. punishment.

Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. This provides evidence for the role of ________ in operant behavior.

A. spontaneous recovery
B. primary reinforcers
C. cognitive processes
D. negative reinforcers

C. cognitive processes

An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the brain activity she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of

A. cognitive maps.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. mirror neurons.
D. the law of effect.

C. mirror neurons.

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?

A. Watson
B. Bandura
C. Pavlov
D. Skinner

B. Bandura

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