The following are all adaptations in plants to life on land except
rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes.
If intelligent extraterrestrials visited Earth 475 million years ago, and then again 300 million years ago (at the close of the Carboniferous period), what trends would they have noticed in Earth's terrestrial vegetation over this period?
1. a trend from dominant gametophytes to dominant sporophytes
2. a trend from sporangia borne on modified leaves (sporophylls) to sporangia borne on stalks (seta)
3. a trend from no true leaves, to microphylls, to megaphylls
4. a trend from soil-surface-hugging plants to "overtopping" plants
5. a trend toward increased lignification of conducting systems
1, 3, 4, and 5
Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?
Both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia.
Which of the following is true of the life cycle of mosses?
Antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.
In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition?
Mitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root makes which of the following more possible?
increase of the aboveground stem.
Which event during the evolution of land plants probably made the synthesis of secondary compounds most beneficial?
the rise of herbivory
Arrange the following terms from most inclusive to least inclusive.
2. green plants
3. seedless vascular plants
2, 1, 5, 3, 4
Most bryophytes, such as mosses, differ from all other plants in that they _____.
lack true leaves and roots
In contrast to bryophytes, in vascular plants the dominant stage of the life cycle is the _____.
During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of _____ produced vast quantities of organic matter, which was buried and later became coal.
ferns and other seedless plants
Which of the following is true of seedless vascular plants?
Whole forests were dominated by large, seedless vascular plants during the Carboniferous period.
If humans had been present to build log structures during the Carboniferous period (they weren't), which plant types would have been suitable sources of logs?
ferns, horsetails, and lycophytes
Which of the following is a land plant that has flagellated sperm and a sporophyte-dominated life cycle?
Suppose an efficient conducting system evolved in a moss that could transport water and other materials as high as a tall tree. Which of the following statements about "trees" of such a species would not be true?
Females could produce only one archegonium.
Select the correct statement about charophytes, a taxon of green algae.
Charophytes and land plants share four distinctive traits.
Select the correct statement about plant life cycles.
At some point in the life cycle of all plants, the sporophyte is dependent on its gametophyte parent.
Select the correct statement contrasting gametophytes and sporophytes.
Sporophytes are diploid, whereas gametophytes are haploid.