Human Growth and Development test #1

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Developmental science is a field of study devoted to

understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan

The field of developmental science is considered to be __________ because investigators often are interested in the practical implications of their research

applied

Developmental science is ___________ because it has grown through the combined efforts of people from many fields of study

Interdisciplinary

Theories are vital tools for developmental researchers because they

provide organizing frameworks for our observations of people.

The ___________ view of development holds that infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way as adults do

continuous

Within the ________________ view of development, new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.

Discontinuous

Dr. Kostel believes that development takes place in stages. This belief is consistent with the _________ perspective

Discontinuous

Kim is interested in comparing the language development of shy versus outgoing preschoolers. Kim is most likely interested in ______________ that shape development

the contexts

Jackson, a professional baseball player, is convinced that his two sons will both be outstanding athletes. Jackson probably believes that athletic ability is mostly determined by

nature

Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes that sensitive care giving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin's mother emphasizes the role of ____________ in development

Nurture

Theorists who point to early experiences as establishing a lifelong pattern of behavior emphasize

Stability.

Theorists who believe that change is possible and even likely if new experiences support it emphasize

Plasticity.

The increase in the number of healthier, more active older adults suggests that human development is a

dynamic system

Max, age 65, learned to play the piano at a local senior center. Max demonstrates that

development is plastic at all ages.

In the lifespan perspective, every age period of human development

1. has its own agenda and its unique demands and opportunities that yield some similarities in development across many individuals.

The lifespan perspective on development assumes that

development is affected by a blend of biological, psychological, and social forces.

Which of the following is an assumption of the lifespan perspective?

Development is a joint expression of growth and decline

Which of the following is an example of an age-graded influence?

Frank got driver license at age 16

Although Betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced parents, and rarely saw her father, she is a successful, happy, and healthy adult. Betty's ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development is known as

Resilience.

Which of the following is a personal characteristic that could offer protection from the damaging effects of early stressful life events?

musical talent

Research on resilience shows that

4. interventions must attend to both the person and the environment to strengthen a child's capacity while also reducing hazardous experiences.

History-graded influences explain why ___________ tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times

Cohorts

Which of the following is an example of a nonnormative influence?

Patty learned to speak Spanish and French in college.

The increasing role of ______________ in the life course adds to the fluid nature of lifespan development

nonnormative events

As a generation, baby boomers are

1. healthier, better educated, and more self-focused than the previous generation.

Research on the baby boomers showed that starting in the mid-sixties,

marriage rates declined, age of first marriage rose, and divorce rates increased

Today, __________ are the largest generation ever to enter middle age.

the baby boomers

Charles Darwin's theory of evolution emphasized ______________ and _______________.

natural selection; survival of the fittest

Charles Darwin's theories led other researchers to study all aspects of children's behavior and, therefore, Darwin is considered the forefather of

scientific child study

G. Stanley Hall regarded development as a _____________ process.

Maturational

G. Stanley Hall and his student, Arnold Gesell,

launched the normative approach.

_____________ was among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents by writing childrearing books

Arnold Gesell

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon's intelligence test was originally constructed to

identify children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes.

According to Sigmund Freud, the

id is the source of basic biological needs and desires

In contrast to Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson

said normal development must be understood in relation to each culture's life situation

Behaviorism focuses on

stimuli and responses.

In classical conditioning,

a neutral stimulus is paired with another stimulus that produces a reflexive response.

Baby Max begins to cry as soon as he sees his mother pick up her car keys. Max probably does this because he learned to
associate the car keys with his mother leaving. This example demonstrates

Classical conditioning

In a historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, John Watson demonstrated that

children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus.

According to _______ theory, the frequency of a behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforcers.

operant conditioning

Garrett hits a playmate in the same way that he has been punished at home. This is an example of

Modeling.

According to ___________ theory, children learn primarily through modeling.

1. social learning

According to social learning theory, as children grow older they

become more selective in what they imitate

Behavior modification eliminates undesirable behaviors by

combining conditioning and modeling.

Albert Bandura is unique among behaviorists because he

emphasized cognition and granted people an active role in their own learning.

According to Jean Piaget, ___________ is the balance between internal structures and information that children encounter in their everyday worlds.

Equilibrium

Research on Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory indicates that

3. children's performances on Piagetian tasks can be improved with training.

The information-processing approach views the mind as a

symbol-manipulating system through which information flows

Lillian uses flowcharts to map the precise steps individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks. Lillian is

information-processing

Which of the following questions would an information-processing theorist ask?

1. Are declines in memory during old age evident on all types of tasks or only some?

A major weakness of the information-processing perspective is that it

virtually ignores aspects of cognition that are not linear and logical

__________ brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns.

Developmental cognitive neuroscience

__________ is concerned with the adaptive value of behavior and its evolutionary history.
A) Ethology

Ethology

Dr. Marx believes that early childhood is a sensitive period for language development. Dr. Marx's belief is consistent with

Ethology

A(n) _________ period is a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge.

sensitive

John Bowlby argued that

behaviors such as smiling, babbling, and crying are innate social signals that encourage parents to interact with their infants.

Dr. Symington studies male-to-male aggression in animals and humans. Dr. Symington probably focuses on

evolutionary developmental theory

Lev Vygotsky's theory focuses on

how culture is transmitted to the next generation.

_______________ theory views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment.

Ecological systems

Because a child's biologically influenced dispositions join with environmental forces to mold development, Urie Bronfenbrenner characterized his perspective as a(n) ______________ model.

bioecological

Bronfenbrenner's macrosystem consists of

cultural values, laws, customs, and resources

Toby moved with his family just before he entered grade 4. In ecological systems theory, the move represents a change in Toby's

chronosystem

Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory all stress

changes in thinking

Dr. George predicted that positive reinforcement would increase prosocial behavior in preschoolers. Dr. George's prediction is an example of a

hypothesis

Dr. Wiren observes children's responses to bullying by watching them play in a park. This is an example of a(n)

Naturalistic observation

A major limitation of systematic observation is that it

tells investigators little about the reasoning behind responses and behaviors

Jessica asked each of 21 children in a kindergarten classroom to explain where rain comes from. She asked the same set of follow-up questions to each participant. This is an example of a

structured interview

A __________ interview is more efficient than a _________ interview because researchers can obtain written responses from an entire group simultaneously.

structured; clinical

____________ interviews do not yield the same depth of information as ___________ interviews.

Structured; clinical

One major limitation of the clinical, or case study, method is

that researchers' theoretical preferences may bias their observations and interpretations.

The __________ method yields richly detailed case narratives that offer valuable insights into the many factors influencing development.

Clinical

Ethnographic research is directed toward understanding a culture through _____________ observation.

Participant

The ethnographic method assumes that ______________ will allow researchers to understand beliefs and behaviors.

entering into close contact with a social group

Jade spent two years in a Mexican-American community studying communication between parents and children. Jade is using the ___________ research method.

Ethnographic

One limitation of the ethnographic method is

investigators' cultural values sometimes lead them to misinterpret what they see.

Compared to their agemates, adolescents from immigrant families are

less likely to commit delinquent or violent acts.

Which of the following is supported by research on immigrant children in the United States?

Adolescents from immigrant families endorse their parents' value of education more strongly than agemates with native-born parents.

Professor Pedagogy's research shows that participation in extracurricular activities is correlated with grades in school. Based on this study's findings, what can Professor Pedagogy conclude?

Participation in extracurricular activities is related to grades.

A(n) _______________ is a number that describes how two measures are associated with each other.

correlation coefficient

Dr. Anodyne found a correlation of +.49 between illegal drug use and levels of adolescent delinquency. This correlation is

moderate and positive

Two main types of designs used in all research on human behavior are _____________ and ____________.

correlational; experimental

A(n) _______________ design permits inferences about cause and effect.

Experimental

The ______________ variable is the one the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable.

Independent

A dependent variable is the

independent variable, one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable.

In an experiment on the effects of music versus acting lessons on intelligence, the independent variable would be

the type of lessons (music versus acting).

Cause-and-effect inferences can be made in an experimental design because

1. the researcher directly controls or manipulates changes in the independent variable.

In an experiment examining whether phonics instruction in preschool increases a child's reading level in third grade, the dependent variable would be the

child's reading level in third grade

Random assignment

assures that participants are assigned to experimental conditions in an unbiased manner.

Professor Martinez wants to know if children who receive one-on-one instruction at school feel more self-confident than children who receive group instruction. To identify a causal relationship between type of instruction and self-confidence, Professor Martinez should

randomly assign half of the participants to group instruction and the other half to one-on-one instruction and compare measures of self-confidence for each group.

In ________ experiments, investigators capitalize on opportunities to assign participants randomly to treatment conditions in natural settings

field

In a __________ design, investigators study the same group of participants repeatedly at different ages.

Longitudinal

A major strength of the longitudinal design is that researchers can

4. examine relationships between early and later behaviors.

To examine whether depression is stable or changes with age, Dr. Bleu followed a group of children from age 8 to age 40

Longitudinal

Longitudinal research can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in behavior because the investigator

tracks the performance of each person over time

One limitation of longitudinal research is that participants' performance may improve as a result of

practice effects

In a longitudinal study, __________ effects occur when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a

Cohort

In a __________ design, the investigator studies groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time.

Cross-sectional

Professor Gimbly wants to investigate how children of different ages characterize their friendships. Professor Gimbly should use a ______________ research design.

3. cross-sectional

The cross-sectional design is an efficient strategy for describing

age-related trends

A major disadvantage of cross-sectional research is that

factors affecting individual development cannot be explored

Like longitudinal research, cross-sectional studies can be threatened by

cohort effects

To overcome some of the limitations of traditional developmental designs, investigators sometimes use

sequential designs

Research that combines ____________ and ______________ designs is increasingly common because it permits correlational and causal inferences.

experimental; developmental

________________ weigh the costs of the research to participants in terms of risks versus benefits.

Institutional review boards

The ethical principle of _______________ requires special interpretation when participants cannot fully appreciate the research goals and activities.

informed consent

In ____________, the investigator provides a full account and justification of the activities after the research session is over.

debriefing

One limitation of debriefing is

young children often lack the cognitive skills to understand the reasons for deceptive procedures.

Ethical standards permit deception in research studies if

the benefits to society justify the risks to the participants and special precautions are taken.

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